, 1988). The main water resource concern during this period was treating drinking water to minimize threats to human health. In the 1920s, dysentery and typhoid impacted the communities as a result of no or low treatment of sewage and drinking water. Walleye, yellow perch and lake whitefish were commercially harvested in larger quantities compared to the other species during this time. Due to the lack of socioeconomic and ecological data during this period Afatinib clinical trial we cannot sufficiently identify the impact of socioeconomic systems on the ecological condition of LSC (and vice versa), but the health issues arising from water consumption infers poor water quality that directly affected
human health. During the second period (1941–1970), the population continued to increase but at lower rates, urbanization was significant, and precipitation
and lake levels of LSC increased. Point sources of pollution, such as wastewater discharges from residential and industrial water use, began Ribociclib price to be regulated through the construction of wastewater treatment plants and the adoption of environmental policies, such as the USA Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948. One of the main concerns during this period was controlling chemical pollutants using engineering solutions (Karr, 1991). By 1966, 85% of the total population was served by sewers with secondary treatment (State of Michigan, 1966); however, beach monitoring for E. coli suggested that water quality degraded over this time. Walleye was the only fish commercially harvested in large quantities during this period. The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 stimulated the shipping industry, which would later influence the spread of invasive species.
During the third and most recent period (1971–2010) the population and the economic importance (e.g. real median value of homes) of the watershed increased. This is likely due to the population moving from the metro-Detroit area into the suburbs in the LSC watershed. Wayne County for the first time had lower employment and population than Sitaxentan the surrounding counties (Macomb, St. Clair, Oakland, Sanilac, Lapeer) in the LSC watershed. After adoption of the Clean Water Act of 1972, new policies, such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between USA and Canada were implemented to protect the designated uses (e.g. fishable/swimmable) of aquatic resources (Table 1). However, water quality problems associated with waterborne pathogens persisted although the risk was associated with recreational exposure rather than drinking water. Wetland area loss was greater than 70% in the 1970s compared to 1873, due to residential, commercial, industrial and recreational development (Herdendorf et al., 1986 and Jaworski and Raphael, 1976).