Both ulcerative (syphilis) and inflammatory (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis) curable STIs may also be associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition, by up to two- to three-fold  and . These infections
http://www.selleckchem.com/products/gdc-0068.html are linked to increased infectiousness among HIV-infected persons; urethritis and cervicitis substantially increase genital HIV shedding  and . HPV might also increase the risk of HIV acquisition . In addition to their physical consequences, STIs can have a profound psychosocial impact that is often difficult to quantify. Studies have shown that an STI diagnosis can lead to feelings of stigma, shame, and diminished self-worth, as well as anxiety about sexual relationships and future reproductive health ,  and . STIs also have an effect on sexual relationships, and can lead to disruption of partnerships and intimate partner violence  and . In the recent
Global Burden of Disease Study, curable STIs accounted for almost 11 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in 2010: syphilis, 9.6 million DALYs; chlamydia, 714,000 DALYs; this website gonorrhea, 282,000 DALYS; and trichomoniasis, 167,000 DALYs . HPV-related cervical cancer accounted for another 6.4 million DALYs lost. The 2010 disease burden study did not calculate DALY estimates for HSV-2, which could be substantial given the role of HSV-2 in HIV transmission. Further, study authors have not yet published the specific no methods used to calculate DALYs for STIs; global burden estimates have been limited by a paucity of precise data on STI-related complications, especially from low-income
settings . STIs also pose a substantial economic burden. In the United States, approximately $3 billion in direct medical costs were spent in 2008 to diagnose and treat 19.7 million cases of STIs and their complications, excluding HIV and pregnancy-related outcomes like stillbirth . The costs associated with adverse STI outcomes are less well documented in resource-poor settings. The public health approach to STI control revolves around two main strategies: behavioral and biomedical primary prevention, to prevent STI acquisition among uninfected people, and STI case management, to diagnose and manage infected people to prevent STI complications (secondary prevention) and ongoing transmission (Fig. 2) . Behavioral primary prevention includes comprehensive sex education, risk-reduction counseling, and condom promotion and provision. The main biomedical STI primary prevention interventions are HPV and HBV vaccines. STI case management involves STI diagnosis, provision of effective treatment, notification and treatment of sex partners, and safer sex counseling and condom provision . STI case management can apply to both symptomatic and asymptomatic people. However, in most settings, STI case management is limited to symptomatic people seeking STI care.