Given the constraints of time that are imposed on medical staff,

Given the constraints of time that are imposed on medical staff, tools to provide quick and accurate information in an easily accessible form could see more prove useful. However, computerised aids are not always readily accepted by medical staff [27], [28] and [29]. We have shown that NLG technology can indeed be employed successfully in a medical setting to produce compact, targetted textual summaries of a patient’s history. In particular, we show that such summaries of large medical datasets can significantly improve the efficiency

of clinicians in certain critical settings. Moreover, the clinicians in our study were overwhelmingly enthusiastic about the automatically generated summaries, a finding that is particularly encouraging given the novelty

of the documents and the natural reluctance of clinicians towards computer-generated reports. The familiarity of the textual medium no doubt played an important role in the success of our system. Combined with graphical facilities, we suspect that it may be possible to Z-VAD-FMK increase even further the efficiency of clinicians in the specific context of making an initial assessment of a patient based solely on their medical history, and we are now investigating this. Although the study reported here focuses on cancer treatment, the techniques that underpin the Report Generator can be applied to almost any medical context. Nevertheless, the Report Generator is to-date a proof-of-concept research system; transformation to a full-deployable clinical tool would require further

software development and testing. Additionally, as with any data-presentation system, the accuracy of the generated summary is fully dependent on the accuracy of its input, in this case: Data quality : the accuracy of the data contained in the Acyl CoA dehydrogenase patient record; In the language of AI, this is termed “garbage-in, garbage-out”. This study demonstrates that AI technology can be successfully employed to write textual summaries of a patient’s medical history. Such summaries are not only accurate (to the extent that the recorded patient data is accurate), but can provide clinicians with key information about a patient’s history in about half the time that it would take if the clinician were instead having to search through the patient’s textual record. A significant portion of a clinician’s time is taken up with non-clinical tasks such as reading the medical records of patients that they are about to see, or having seen the patient, writing letters or reports about the patient. Automatically generated summary overviews of a patient’s medical history can potentially enhance doctor–patient interactions by significantly reducing the time required for doctors to carry out some of these tasks. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

MOLT-4 cells (3 × 106) were treated with 2 μM, 5 μM and 10 μM con

MOLT-4 cells (3 × 106) were treated with 2 μM, 5 μM and 10 μM concentrations of DQQ for 24 h. Cytosolic fractions were prepared by selective plasma membrane permeabilization with digitonin [23]. Briefly, 2 × 106 cells were lysed for 1-2 minute in lysis buffer containing 75 mM NaCl, 8 mM Na2HPO4, 1 mM NaH2PO4, 1 mM EDTA, 350 μg/ml digitonin and 1% (v/v) eukaryotic protease inhibitor cocktail. The lysates were centrifuged at 12,000 g for 1 min, and the supernatant collected as cytosolic fraction. Bafilomycin A1 Residual pellet was lysed with buffer composed of 150 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris (pH 8.0), 5 mM EDTA,

1% (vol/vol) Nonidet p-40, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 20 μg/mL aprotinin, and 25 μg/mL leupeptin for 30 minutes at 4 °C. After centrifugation at 12,000 g for 10 min at 4 °C, cell lysates were transferred CYC202 research buy to fresh tubes and

stored as mitochondrial fraction. Equal amount of protein (30-70 μg) were subjected to SDS-PAGE and then electro transferred to PVDF membrane for 100 min at 40C at 100 V. Nonspecific binding was blocked by incubation with 5% non-fat milk or 3% BSA in tris-buffered saline containing 0.1% Tween-20 (TBST), for 1 h at room temperature. The membranes were incubated with respective primary antibodies for 4 h and washed twice with TBST. After that, blots were incubated with horseradish peroxidase conjugated secondary antibodies for 1 h and washed three times with TBST. Blots were incubated with ECL plus reagent and signal captured by using hyperfilm (GE Healthcare) [24]. Human cytochrome c and beclin 1 specific siRNA

were transfected into MOLT-4 cells by using manufacturer protocol. Briefly, 2 × 105 MOLT-4 cells were seeded in six well plates and incubated in transfection media containing equal amounts of transfection reagent and siRNA for 8 h. Complete media was added to cells different experiments were performed within 72 h of transfection. Knocking down of the expression of the respective proteins was checked by western blotting. mTOR inhibition of DQQ was found out by using K-LISA™ mTOR kit from Calbiochem (#CBA055). It is an ELISA-based assay Sinomenine that utilizes a p70S6K-GST fusion protein as a specific mTOR substrate. The assay was carried out according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Briefly, 100 μl of recombinant p70S6K-GST fusion protein was pre-incubated at room temperature in the glutathione coated 96-well plate for 1 h after that a mixture of 49 μl of ice-chilled mTOR kinase and 1 μl of test compounds or DMSO was added. The reaction was initiated by the addition of 50 μl of mTOR kinase assay buffer containing 100 μM ATP and 1 μM DTT. The plate was treated first with 100 μl of anti-p70S6K-T389 for 1 h and then with 100 μl of HRP-conjugated antibody for 1 h to detect the T389-phosphorylated p70S6 K. Absorbance was measured at 450 nm and 595 nm using microplate spectrophotometer.

Ravindran et al (2012) have described an LAMP method to detect L

Ravindran et al. (2012) have described an LAMP method to detect Las using primers for the 16S rDNA of the pathogen. However, for detection of HLB associated Las, LAMP has not been used widely so far. The availability of the full genome sequence of Las ( Duan et al., 2009) has enabled researchers to evaluate other regions of the bacterium that are more suitable for PCR-based detection technologies ( Morgan et al., 2012). We have developed a rapid, cost-effective, easy to operate, and field deployable technique to detect Las in psyllids. The method is very simple and can be routinely used effectively by citrus growers, extension

workers and home owners. It would be very useful to have quick and simple diagnostic tools to detect the pathogen in psyllid vectors in citrus growing regions of the world where facilities AZD5363 concentration Selleckchem Apoptosis Compound Library are not available for expensive PCR testing. In addition, growers could afford regular monitoring of their groves. Extension workers and inspectors will have information that would enable them to alert a local testing laboratory if positive psyllids are detected. The first report of HLB in Louisiana was triggered by a report from a home owner who spotted a psyllid on

a “symptomatic tree” (Hummel and Ferrin, 2010). Utilizing the methodology and the instrumentation described in this work, we envision potential for implementing a wide surveillance program for detection of the pathogen. Rapid and reliable testing of a large number of psyllids combined with traditional methods of control, including targeted pesticide sprays to eliminate Las-positive psyllid sub-populations, will enable efficient and financially sustainable HLB management strategies. Psyllids maintained on HLB infected

plants in an insectary at the USDA ARS, United States Horticultural Research Laboratory, Fort Pierce were used for development of LAMP technology. Preserved psyllids stored in 95% ethanol were obtained from psyllid-infested regions of Florida, Brazil and Pakistan for testing in California. Las-free D. citri were obtained from a psyllid colony maintained at the quarantine facility located in the Dept. of Entomology, University of California Riverside (UCR), CA. Samples of the tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit maintained on tomato plants were obtained from Dept. of Entomology, UCR, CA. For the LAMP assay, crude ACP extracts were prepared as follows; 1–20 psyllids were removed from the collection tubes, the ethanol was air-dried on a piece of filter paper for 2–5 min and the psyllids were dropped into individually capped PCR tubes containing 100 μL of extraction buffer (20 mM Tris, pH 8.0 containing 2 mM EDTA and 1% TritonX100®) and heated in the Smart-DART™ unit for 10 min at 85 °C. The samples were centrifuged for 5 s in a micro-centrifuge and the clear supernatant was used for the LAMP assay. The tomato psyllids (B. cockerelli) carrying ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ (synonym, Ca. L.

All authors declare no conflicts of interest This work was suppo

All authors declare no conflicts of interest. This work was supported by E-rare project JTC 2007 OSTEOPETR to AV, Fondazione Cariplo grant to CS, Telethon Foundation (grant Lapatinib mw GGP10116) to CS, by Ministero della Salute, convenzione 47 (Role of new inflammatory molecules in pregnancy pathologies and in maternal neonatal health) to PV, by the European Commission [HEALTH-F2-2008-201099, TALOS] and by grants from the ‘Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek’ [FWO, G.0065.10N], from the Special Research Funds (BOF TOP

and NOI) of the University of Antwerp, all to WVH. EB holds a pre-doctoral specialization scholarship from the “Institute for the Promotion of Innovation through Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT-Vlaanderen)”. mTOR inhibitor
“In the author line, the name of P. Chowienczyk was spelled incorrectly. M. Nerlander is removed as an author. The correct author line appears above. An acknowledgments section has been added as it appears below: The authors would like to acknowledge and thank M. Nerlander for his assistance in the acquisition of data and running of vitamin K assays. The authors also acknowledge the assistance of the NIHR Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre at Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospitals. “
“Bone healing

is a complex regenerative process initiated in response to a fracture; with the

final aim of restoring skeletal function. Over the last 2 decades, this well Acetophenone orchestrated cascade of events has become increasingly understood [1]. Interestingly, bone healing seems to recapitulate many events seen in bone development and embryogenesis [1], [2] and [3]. The key drivers of this process are cytokines, platelets and growth factors, of which bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have emerged as critical players. BMPs are members of the pleiotropic Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-β) family [4]. More than 20 BMPs are currently known, and their characteristic feature is the capacity to induce endochondral bone formation [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11] and [12]. Starting after birth, BMPs play a critical role in maintenance of bone mass through inducing commitment of mesenchymal cells towards cells of the osteoblastic lineage, and they also enhance the differentiated function of the osteoblast. Analysis of genetically modified mouse models with various null mutations, dominant-negative or conditional knockouts of BMP ligands, BMP receptors (BMPRs) or Smad proteins, has clearly shown the functional relevance of the BMP signaling cascade in skeletal formation and repair [13]. In addition, naturally occurring mutations of BMPs and BMPR in humans are associated with skeletal abnormalities [14].

It is known that real-time PCR gives exponential signal amplifica

It is known that real-time PCR gives exponential signal amplification and real-time detection. Under optimal conditions (100% efficiency) a 10-fold increase in the amount of DNA template is associated with a decrease in Cq value by a factor of 3.4. IPCR-based assays are therefore especially useful for detection of target antigens at large quantitative differences. In contrast, standard ELISA gives linear signal amplification and end point detection and, therefore, suits better for detection of smaller

differences at lower range of concentrations; meaningful calibration curves for ELISA span usually selleck chemicals two orders of magnitude or less. Fifth, the labor requirement of the assays must also be taken into consideration. As shown in Fig. 1, Nano-iPCR based assays are less laborious because they have fever steps than iPCR or ELISA. Once the probes (functionalized Au-NPs) are prepared they can be stored for several months and used immediately for easy quantification of the learn more antigen. Our primary intention was to develop

an assay for detection of cytokines in serum-supplemented cell culture media. Nano-iPCR performed in TopYield strips with master mixes covered with oil film and transparent foil offers a simple and robust assay for rapid detection of IL-3 and SCF using commercially available antibodies and their biotinylated forms. The binding of antibody and thiolated oligonucleotide template to Au-NPs is an easy method of how to combine antibodies and oligonucleotides into a complex suitable for the assays. The assay can be used for quantification of other ligands, provided good monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies and their biotinylated forms are available. In conclusion, Nano-iPCR assay shows enhanced sensitivity and wider dynamic range than ELISA and is easier to perform than iPCR. It can be expected that further improvement of the Nano-iPCR assays, namely introduction of better detection probes with higher ligand specificity and lower nonspecific binding will advance the application of these tests for routine detection of

cytokines as well as other ligands. Synthetically prepared tailored DNA or RNA aptamers (Jayasena, 1999 and Khati, 2010) and tailored recombinant binding proteins (Binz et al., 2005) could provide such probes. The authors do not have a commercial or other association Methocarbamol that might pose a conflict of interest. This work was supported by project KAN200520701 and M200520901 from Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 1M6837805001 (Center of Molecular and Cellular Immunology) and LC-545 from Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, grants 204/05/H023, 301/09/1826 and P302/10/1759 from the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, and Institutional projectAVOZ50520514. “
“The authors regret the UC MEXUS-CONACYT Postdoctoral Fellowship Program was missing from the acknowledgments in the original publication of this article.

, 1980) The average numbers of trials containing recalled and fo

, 1980). The average numbers of trials containing recalled and forgotten words were respectively

51 and 36, with negligible differences across experimental conditions. For cue-related activity, waveforms were quantified by measuring mean amplitudes in the 300–1000, 1000–2000, and 2000–2400 msec latency intervals following cue onset. Encoding-related activity elicited by words was quantified by measuring mean amplitudes in the 700–1200 and 1200–1900 msec intervals following word onset. The Results section provides a justification for these intervals. The analyses were performed across 26 electrode sites to assess scalp distribution differences across anterior and posterior sites (cf. Galli et al., 2011, 2012). The analyses of variance (ANOVAs) incorporated factors of scalp location (anterior/posterior) and electrode site (13 locations) in addition to the experimental factors of subsequent memory

(recalled/forgotten), discrimination difficulty (easy/difficult) and stimulus modality (visual/auditory). Greenhouse–Geisser corrections were used for violations of sphericity (Keselman and Rogan, 1980). Lower order interactions were not considered in the presence of higher order interactions and only effects involving subsequent memory are reported. On average, 55.9% (SD = 15.3) of visual words were recalled following easy cue discriminations and 55.6% (SD = 14.1) following difficult cue discriminations. For auditory words, these values were respectively 57.9% (SD = 13.1) and 56.2%

(SD = 11.9). A repeated measures ANOVA with factors of discrimination difficulty (easy/difficult) and stimulus modality (visual/auditory) did not suggest significant differences in recall buy SP600125 (p > .368). Fig. 2 shows the number of visual and auditory words recalled from each of the 16 positions in the easy and difficult discrimination lists. When the factor of list position was added to the ANOVA described above, a significant main effect of position emerged [Greenhouse–Geisser corrected F(7.04, 189.95) = 16.44, p < .001]. Confirming the visual impression of a primacy effect, pairwise comparisons on consecutive list positions indicated that recall was enhanced for words in the first four positions (p < .014; other p > .105). The ANOVA also showed a significant interaction between list position and stimulus modality [F(10.35, Methamphetamine 279.40) = 1.99, p = .032]. This appeared to reflect the slightly higher recall of auditory than visual words from middle portions of the lists. During list learning, responses to prestimulus cues were more accurate and faster in the easy than difficult discrimination conditions (respectively 88.0% vs 83.7% and 822 vs 858 msec; Fig. 3). It also took on average less time to respond to visual than auditory cues (702 vs 978 msec). A repeated measures ANOVA on accuracy rates showed a main effect of discrimination difficulty [F(1, 27) = 8.76, p = .006]. This effect was also significant in the ANOVA on response times [F(1, 27) = 13.66, p = .

She added, “if they [the provider]

She added, “if they [the provider] selleck chemicals llc … reiterated what I told them, I would know they had listened to me. When exploring reactions to the term ‘preference’ it became clear that the term was unclear to participants: “[this term] preferences is not clear” (P13 <45 F), and “I don’t know what preferences would mean in this context” (P15 45–64 M). Many interpreted ‘preference’ as referring to the chosen option rather than referring to individual priorities: “what are my preferences? … in other words he's giving me choices” (P23 ≥65 M) and “… if you had a

number of choices, which [one] would be the one that you prefer” (P25 45–64 M). The term ‘what matters most’ remained the most consistently understood term in this interview stage. Reactions included statements indicating that the term was the same as the things that are buy CHIR-99021 “more personal” (P17 <45 F) and “at the core of my concerns … whether it be future health problems, family, or how I manage at home…” (P20 <45 F), or referred to whether “… one concern

outweighed others? In making a decision, I want to see my child graduate from high school. I want to stay alive as long as I can” (P24 ≥65 F). Nine of 15 participants preferred the phrasing ‘what matters most’, and understood the item to mean “how concerned and how interested … [healthcare professionals were] in what I had to say about my health issues” (P26 ≥65 M). In addition, there was significant evidence in the interviews of resistance toward the adoption of decision making roles when individuals considered how they would react in clinical encounters: “… when someone … knows more than I do, I do really need them to help me choose what is good for me” (P23 ≥65 M), a view also espoused by participant 22: “my preference may not be best, therefore the decision or choice by the professional/the provider is the important thing?” (P22 ≥65 M). As described above the need for this item emerged during our first round of interviews. Participants noted a difference

between providers who listened to ‘what mattered most’ and those who took the extra step to integrate those priorities when making recommendations. Participant 7 asked, “how would I know if he [provider] understood my worries Prostatic acid phosphatase and concerns?” (P7 <45 F). In research terms, we recognized this as the difference between preference elicitation and preference integration. As one participant said, it is the difference between “understanding my concerns” versus also “paying attention to … what I am saying” (P10 <45 M). We therefore recognized the need to develop a new item to address the dimension of preference integration. After brainstorming candidate items, we selected a group of possible phrases (Table 2). We asked participants to respond to the terms ‘work’, ‘involve’, or ‘include’. Participants preferred the term ‘include’ as being a better indication that a patient was being brought “into the whole process” (P25 45–64 M).

“The authors wish to correct Figure 1 of their original st

“The authors wish to correct Figure 1 of their original study article: Morandi A, Davis D, Fick DM, Turco R, Boustani M, Lucchi E, Guerini F, Morghen S, Torpilliesi T, Gentile S, MacLullich AM, Trabucchi M, Bellelli G. Delirium Superimposed on Dementia Strongly Predicts Worse Outcomes in Older Rehabilitation Inpatients. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2014;15:349-354. Figure 1 was incorrect in the percentages shown in the DSD column, bottom panel. In the bottom panel the DSD percentages were actually inverted. The Mobility Independency Follow-up should be shown as 31% and the Mobility Dependency learn more Follow-up as 69%. See the corrected Figure 1 below. Fig. 1.  Distribution of functional status at rehabilitation discharge

and at 1-year follow-up according to the cognitive diagnosis (no delirium no dementia, delirium alone, dementia alone, delirium superimposed on dementia [DSD]). The functional status was evaluated

BMS-907351 order as the degree of walking dependence at discharge and at 1-year follow-up using the Barthel Index walking mobility sub-item. A score less than 15 (the maximum score) is robust to the presence of mobility dependency.30,31 In this description are excluded the 239 patients who died in the year after the discharge. “
“Healthy biodiverse seas are vital for future proofing marine ecosystem services such as global food security (Ehrlich et al., 1993, Toledo and Burlingame, 2006 and Worm et al., 2006) and climate regulation (Danovaro et al., 2008 and Mooney et al., 2009). Natural biodiverse communities have greater functional redundancy than disturbed communities, which increases ecosystem resilience to future climatic changes, such as rising temperatures and ocean acidification (Costanza et al., 1997, Naeem, 1998, Naeem and Li, 1997 and Yachi and Loreau, 1999). Benthic ecosystems play a key role in maintaining prosperous fisheries (Hovey

et al., 2012 and Walters and Juanes, 1993). Benthic communities include commercial target species, such Dichloromethane dehalogenase as flat fishes and shellfish (lobsters and scallops) and non-target, sessile, colonial fauna, such as corals, sponges and bryozoans (Garthe et al., 1996, Hiddink et al., 2008 and Saila et al., 2002). The targeted fishes, crustaceans and molluscs live amongst the non-target fauna that give structural complexity to the seabed (Bradshaw et al., 2003). Biogenic structural complexity provides nursery areas for larvae, substrate for spat settlement and cover to hide from predation (Eggleston et al., 1990, Lima and Dill, 1990, Mittelbach, 1984 and Pirtle et al., 2012). Sessile species capture and recycle water column nutrients through filter feeding (Beaumont, 2009), and produce planktonic larvae that support higher trophic levels. This bentho-pelagic coupling, through a range of trophic links, provides prey for birds (Grecian et al., 2010), commercially important fishes such as cod (Gadus morhua, Heath and Lough, 2007 and Lomond et al.

Less common and more controversial artificial


Less common and more controversial artificial

habitats this website include worn tires, coal-power waste, and other components (Woodhead et al., 1982 and Collins et al., 2002). The potential toxicity of such structures is as variable as the materials used in their construction. Such installations are also known to affect the surrounding benthos in soft sediments, due to changes in predator forays around the new refugium (Broughton 2012). Little is known about the effects of artificial reefs and other structures installed at depths >100 m (Macreadie et al., 2011). Once considered to be constant, spatially homogeneous, and isolated, deep-sea sediments are now recognized as a dynamic, diverse habitat that is intricately linked to the global biosphere (Levin et al., 2001). Deep-sea biodiversity has been shown to correlate positively with ecosystem function (Danovaro et al., 2008), and therefore is an important consideration when evaluating the impact of an introduced structure. Potential negative impacts of human-introduced structures in marine ecosystems include physical damage to the seabed, undesirable changes in marine food webs, colonization of invasive species, and release of contaminants (Macreadie

et al., 2011). Furthermore, efficiently dispersing, fast-growing, highly fecund (i.e., “weedy”, typically selleckchem non-native) species can create additional oxygen demand in marine ecosystems. In already hypoxic environments such as those in and adjacent to the Oxygen Minimum

Zone (a layer of oxygen-deplete water ranging from approx. 500–1000 m depth), additional oxygen demand may promote declines in ecosystem richness and evenness due to physiological stress (Levin et al., 2001). In this study we evaluate the hypothesis that the diversity, distribution, and abundance of benthic organisms near the lost intermodal container vary spatially in association with the container. The shipping container is located on a mildly sloping, sediment-covered seabed (1281 m depth) on the upper continental slope in the MBNMS (Fig. 1). A megafaunal assemblage of soft corals, crustaceans, and echinoderms dominates the sea floor in this location, Calpain while benthic macrofauna (infauna) is comprised largely of polychaete worms, nematodes, and harpactacoid copepods. Scientists from the MBNMS and MBARI inspected and sampled the container and nearby benthic faunal assemblages during March 2011 using the ROV Doc Ricketts (dive D219), operated by MBARI from the R/V Western Flyer. ROV pilots flew the vehicle up to a 500 m radius from the intermodal container to record high resolution video along 12 transects up to 480 m long (with total video survey area in excess of 3000 m2). In addition, benthic macrofaunal organisms were analyzed from sediments collected in 31 sediment cores (7 cm diameter, 192.4 cm3 of sediment in the top 5 cm analyzed; Fig. 2).

The assay temperature must be within the linear range,


The assay temperature must be within the linear range,

although the enzyme possesses there not its maximum activity. From these considerations it becomes clear that a general standard temperature for all enzyme assays cannot be defined. For the majority of assays, especially for mammalian enzymes, three distinct temperatures are in use. The physiological temperature, 37 °C, matches directly the natural condition of the enzyme and, compared with the other two assay temperatures, the enzyme develops there its highest activity, i.e. the lowest enzyme Selleckchem Cabozantinib amounts are required (Figure 5A). However, this temperature is nearest to the denaturation range, and it requires efficient thermostatting. Since the assay mixture is usually stored at low temperature, a considerable time of several minutes to warm up the assay is needed. The attainment of the proper temperature should be controlled, but to save time, especially with larger test series, the experimenter may be tempted to shorten the thermostatting time and the reaction will in fact proceed with reduced activity. To save time a separate thermostatting device is recommended, where one sample can already be pre-thermostatted while measuring the actual sample. Performing the assay at room Torin 1 nmr temperature may eliminate the problem of thermostatting. Room temperature, however, is not constant; it varies not only between different laboratories, but changes also in the same room upon

opening or closing windows and doors, radiation of sunlight, or defective air conditioning. Therefore a slightly elevated temperature, 25 °C, is used. Here thermostatting is not very crucial, the accurate temperature will be attained within a short time and even insufficient thermostatting cause only slight aberrations of the results. Compared with tests at the physiological temperature, however, the activity

is evidently lower and thus significantly more enzymes is needed to obtain comparable velocities (Figure 5A). Nevertheless, due to the easier manipulation and more robust data most protocols MTMR9 suggest 25 °C as assay temperature. This is convenient for simple and routine assays as long as enough enzyme material is available, while for more thorough investigations of enzymes the physiological temperature should be preferred. The third of the frequently used temperatures, 30 °C, is a compromise between the other two. It is closer to the physiological temperature but easier to achieve, the enzyme is more active than at 25 °C, and thermal denaturation must not be feared. In special cases none of these three temperatures can be employed. Enzymes from thermophilic organisms, growing at temperatures up to and even above the boiling point of water, show very low activities at moderate temperatures and should preferentially be tested at the growth temperature of their organism (Vieille and Zeikus, 2001, Rainey and Oren, 2006 and Gerday, 2007).