The authors would like to thank Charles M. Dozois and Frédéric Douesnard-Malo for critical comments concerning this manuscript. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) grant number 251114-06. S.C.S. was supported by a scholarship from the Fonds de la Recherche en Santé du Québec (FRSQ). C.G.F. and J.M.L. were supported by scholarships from NSERC. C.G.F. was also supported by a scholarship from the Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie Porcine (CRIP). Fig. S1. Genomic comparison of pathogenicity islands from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18. Pseudogenes in S. Typhi are represented by an asterisk
(*). Amino acid sequence alignments of pathogenicity islands were generated using xBASE (promer) (Chaudhuri & Pallen, 2006). Table S1. List of SPI-1 and SPI-2 effectors from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and Salmonella EPZ5676 clinical trial enterica serovar Typhi CT18. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that is being increasingly used
in agriculture in a commercial scale. Recent research has elucidated key click here properties of A. brasilense that contribute to its ability
to adapt to the rhizosphere habitat and to promote plant growth. They include synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, nitric oxide, carotenoids, and a range of cell surface components as well as the ability to undergo phenotypic variation. Storage and utilization of polybetahydroxyalkanoate polymers are important for the shelf Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease life of the bacteria in production of inoculants, products containing bacterial cells in a suitable carrier for agricultural use. Azospirillum brasilense is able to fix nitrogen, but despite some controversy, as judging from most systems evaluated so far, contribution of fixed nitrogen by this bacterium does not seem to play a major role in plant growth promotion. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of physiological properties of A. brasilense that are important for rhizosphere performance and successful interactions with plant roots. The rhizosphere is the area of the soil that is influenced by the plant roots. It is rich in microorganisms, with their composition differing from the rest of the soil owing to the activity of plant roots (the so called rhizosphere effect). Among microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere, several bacterial species, known as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), are able to promote root and plant growth (Hartmann et al., 2008; Spaepen et al., 2009).