25 to 0 95 Kav contain hydroxyproline Thus, major antler CS-cont

25 to 0.95 Kav contain hydroxyproline. Thus, major antler CS-containing eluates (0.1–0.2 Kav) were collected and examined by amino acid analysis and electrophoresis followed by western blot with the monoclonal antibody to identify CS. Toluidine blue-stained gel electrophoresis of antler CS fractions from gel chromatography

on Sephacryl S-300 (Fig. 4) is shown in Fig. 5a. The molecular size of the antler CS fraction eluted (Fig. 5a, lane 1) is apparently smaller than bovine cartilage CS (Fig. 5a, lane 2). Both the antler CS fraction and bovine cartilage CS were stained with a monoclonal antibody (anti-CS56) specific to CS (Fig. 5b, lane 1). The result of western blot shows that the presence of Roxadustat chemical structure the epitopes can be recognised by anti-CS56, confirming that the collected fraction contained INK 128 datasheet CS. The antler CS fraction possessed a small amount of amino acids (approximately 23.5 mg per gram by dry weight, Table 1). The antler

CS fraction was then examined for its capability to interact with hyaluronic acid and form high molecular weight aggregates by using Sepharose CL-2B chromatography (Fig. 6). Sepharose CL-2B chromatography with and without prior incubation with hyaluronic acid showed that there was no interaction of the antler CS fraction with exogenous hyaluronic acid. In contrast, the aggrecan from bovine articular cartilage interacted with hyaluronic acid, which was observed as the appearance of a peak excluded from Sepharose CL-2B (Fig. 6b). In the present study, the result suggested that the present preparation of the antler CS fraction most likely lacked the G1 domain containing the hyaluronic acid binding region as compared to the aggrecan from bovine articular cartilage that contained the functional peptide. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the antler CS fraction after HHP-EH treatment was measured at various

concentrations. As shown in Fig. 7, DPPH radical scavenging activities of antler CS fraction, bovine cartilage CS and shark cartilage CS at a concentration of 5 mg/mL were measured as 50.9 ± 1.1%, 7.6 ± 0.1%, and 4.8 ± 0.1%, respectively. The scavenging effect of the antler check CS fraction increased with increasing concentrations up to 10 mg/mL, indicating that the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was 61.9 ± 1.4%. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the antler CS fraction was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of CS from bovine or shark cartilage but lower than that of either ascorbic acid or BHT. Proteoglycans present in the bone matrix help in bone mineralization and calcium accumulation. Chondroitin sulfate is reported to have functional roles in cell proliferation and wound healing [23]. Antler CS is one of the natural GAG composed of the alternating sugars GlcA and GalNAc. CS, an important component of the extracellular matrix, can be extracted from cartilaginous tissue and is available as a food supplement.

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