For this noninterventional study in our patient cohort, a votum o

For this noninterventional study in our patient cohort, a votum of the AMC ethics committee was not required. The main outcome measure was the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of TRD. Incidence rates (IRs) were calculated by dividing Natural Product Library the number of TRDs by traveled time in weeks. IRRs were calculated as the IR of specific groups of travelers (eg, travelers with underlying

conditions) divided by the IR of a reference group (eg, healthy travelers). Confidence intervals for IRRs were calculated using episheet. We compared duration of TRD in days in those treated with pre-travel and during travel prescribed antibiotics and duration of travel in days for persons with and without TRD using an independent samples t-test. Statistical analysis was performed using PASWstatistics18 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA). The study population included 420 patients

who were found eligible. Baseline Y-27632 research buy characteristics of the study population are presented in Table 1. The telephone questionnaire was answered by 345 of 420 (82.1%) patients and 100 of 123 (81.3%) healthy travelers. Main groups consisted of travelers with HIV, a reduced gastric barrier, diabetes mellitus, and immune-suppressants, as shown in Table 2. Of 345 patients, 90 were aged over 60. Many of these 60+ travelers had a cardiac disorder (37/90, 41%), a reduced gastric barrier (32/90, 35.6%), or diabetes mellitus (15/90, 16.7%). At least one health problem was reported in 144 (39.7%) patients. We excluded 45 noninfectious health problems, resulting in 99 (27.8%) relevant health problems. Compared to healthy travelers, all pre-existing conditions had a high risk of TRD (Table 2). The highest IRRs were found for travelers using immune-suppressants, specifically Morin Hydrate transplant-related drugs, prednisolone,

and antimetabolites. HIV positives with CD4 counts <500/µL and those with reduced gastric barriers also had high IRRs. No difference was found between age >60 and <60 within the group with underlying conditions [IRR 1.03, 95% CI (0.64–1.65)]. Protective hepatitis B serology was observed among 78 of 420 (18.6%) travelers with a medical history. In 71 (91.0%) travelers, serologic protection (anti-HBs GMT > 10UI/L) was recorded. In 7 (9.0%) travelers, serology showed an active hepatitis B infection. In addition, 27 (6.4%) travelers of the same group were vaccinated against the virus but protection was not verified serologically. Among the other 315 (75%) travelers with a medical history, all serologic markers were either negative (8.1%) or unknown (66.9%) (data not shown). Popular destinations were Africa (36.4%), Asia (31.9%), and Central/South America (19.6%) (Figure 1). Countries visited most frequently were Indonesia (61 visits), Surinam (55 visits), Ghana (39 visits), and Thailand (35 visits). Table 3 shows the effect of travel destinations compared to Southeast Asia on TRD. The highest IRRs were observed for travelers to Central America [IRR 2.78, 95% CI (0.

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