g., temporal ZD1839 and spatial trends). The issues raised here and addressed by the BEES-C instrument cut across multiple disciplines that involve biological measurements of short-lived chemicals, including occupational studies and nutritional epidemiology. The features of short-lived chemicals in environmental epidemiology studies that require special attention are: the number and timing of samples taken in order to represent the relevant exposure window
for the health outcome of interest; the ubiquitous use of many of these chemicals in currently manufactured products, including personal care products, laboratory equipment, dust, food, etc., which introduces special needs for avoidance of sample contamination; choice of appropriate biological matrix; and the ability to measure a large number of chemicals in one sample, increasing the need for attention to full reporting and issues related to multiple comparisons. These are discussed more fully in the following sections, with examples given for each issue. While
most of the instrument topics pertain to biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers PI3K inhibitor of effect are described when relevant. The BEES-C instrument can serve multiple purposes including: aiding researchers in the development of study design, reviewing grant proposals, peer reviewing manuscripts, and conducting WOE assessments. The ultimate goal of the BEES-C tool is to assist researchers in improving the overall body of literature on studies of short-lived chemicals in humans. The BEES-C instrument is not intended to be used: (i) to discourage researchers from conducting hypothesis-generating research, or (ii) to preclude lower-tiered studies from
being included in WOE assessments. As with any type of evaluative instrument, professional judgment must be part of the evaluative process, both in terms of tiering and for determining which aspects of the instrument are relevant to a given study. In the sections below, we describe the key aspects of BEES-C along with examples. Here we discuss recommendations for utilizing BEES-C. While the preponderance of the topics covered by this instrument would pertain to human biomonitoring Methane monooxygenase studies that are part of epidemiological research on associations between biomarkers of exposure and some measure of effect (e.g., biomarker of effect, physician-diagnosed disease), only a portion of the BEES-C instrument will be applicable to human biomonitoring studies designed for other purposes (e.g., exposure assessment for temporal or spatial trend analysis). Table 1 is organized according to aspects of study design (rows) and evaluative tiers (columns). For each study under review, critical aspects are assessed row by row and the appropriate cell is color-coded (Fig. 1), with Tier 1 indicating the highest quality. This allows the researcher/reviewer to obtain an overall picture of study quality.