Given the universal use of CD4 and viral load for the assessment of ART effectiveness in clinical trials, our unexpected findings are of concern. Further analyses of independent trials are critically needed to evaluate the utility of prognostic laboratory markers to compare regimens, especially in resource-limited settings with high background
learn more morbidity and where, following the public health approach to ART provision  and given limited formularies, first-line ART is often continued to clinical rather than immunological or virological failure. We thank all the participants and staff from all the centres participating in the NORA and DART trial. MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe, Uganda: H. Grosskurth, P. Munderi, G. Kabuye, D. Nsibambi, R. Kasirye, E. Zalwango, M. Nakazibwe, B. Kikaire, G. Nassuna, R. Massa, K. Fadhiru, M. Namyalo, A. Romidepsin Zalwango, L. Generous, P. Khauka, N. Rutikarayo,
W. Nakahima, A. Mugisha, J. Todd, J. Levin, S. Muyingo, A. Ruberantwari, P. Kaleebu, D. Yirrell, N. Ndembi, F. Lyagoba, P. Hughes, M. Aber, A. Medina Lara, S. Foster, J. Amurwon and B. Nyanzi Wakholi. Joint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda: P. Mugyenyi, C. Kityo, F. Ssali, D. Tumukunde, T. Otim, J. Kabanda, H. Musana, J. Akao, H. Kyomugisha, A. Byamukama, J. Sabiiti, J. Komugyena, P. Wavamunno, S. Mukiibi, A. Drasiku, R. Byaruhanga, O. Labeja, P. Katundu, S. Tugume, P. Awio, A. Namazzi, G. T. Bakeinyaga, H. Katabira, D. Abaine, J. Tukamushaba, W. Anywar, W. Ojiambo, E.
Angweng, S. Murungi, W. Haguma, S. Atwiine and J. Kigozi. University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe: A. Latif, J. Hakim, V. Robertson, A. Reid, E. Chidziva, R. Bulaya-Tembo, G. Musoro, F. Taziwa, C. Chimbetete, L. Chakonza, A. Mawora, C. Muvirimi, G. Tinago, P. Svovanapasis, M. Selleck BIBF1120 Simango, O. Chirema, J. Machingura, S. Mutsai, M. Phiri, T. Bafana, M. Chirara, L. Muchabaiwa and M. Muzambi. Infectious Diseases Institute (formerly the Academic Alliance) Makerere University, Mulago, Uganda: E. Katabira, A. Ronald, A. Kambungu, F. Lutwama, A. Nanfuka, J. Walusimbi, E. Nabankema, R. Nalumenya, T. Namuli, R. Kulume, I. Namata, L. Nyachwo, A. Florence, A. Kusiima, E. Lubwama, R. Nairuba, F. Oketta, E. Buluma, R. Waita, H. Ojiambo, F. Sadik, J. Wanyama and P. Nabongo. The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO), Uganda: R. Ochai and D. Muhweezi. Imperial College, London, UK: C. Gilks, K. Boocock, C. Puddephatt, D. Winogron and J. Bohannon. MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London, UK: J. Darbyshire, D.M. Gibb, A. Burke, D. Bray, A. Babiker, A.S. Walker, H. Wilkes, M. Rauchenberger, S. Sheehan, L. Peto, K. Taylor, M. Spyer, A. Ferrier, B. Naidoo, D. Dunn and R. Goodall. Independent DART Trial Monitors: R. Nanfuka and C.