Identifying personality characteristics and underlying Roxadustat order biological mechanisms that predispose to weight gain are of considerable public health interest because this will enable ‘profiling’ of persons at risk for overweight and the development of personalized weight-management interventions. In the past decades a wide range of personality characteristics related to food intake and body weight has been identified (for an excellent review, see Ref. ). This includes general personality characteristics like reward sensitivity as well as specific eating-related characteristics, such as restrained and external eating 2••, 3 and 4. While behavioral evidence for a link between personality characteristics and eating behavior is mounting,
less is known about the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Several meta-analyses and reviews have begun to identify the core neural responses to food cues 5, 6 and 7••. However, the modulating effect of personality on food-induced brain responses has been relatively little investigated. This review and meta-analysis gives an overview of the current knowledge GSK458 clinical trial and recent advances in the study of personality characteristics in relation to food-induced brain responses. A large number of personality characteristics have been used in research on food-induced brain responses. However, it seems unlikely that each of these characteristics represents an independent
neurobiological mechanism. Indeed, behavioral studies have shown that many of these characteristics are interrelated, for example, food addiction, impulsivity and external eating 8• and 9 and external eating, emotional eating and restraint . To establish which personality characteristics share a common neural background, that is, which characteristics modulate food-induced brain responses in similar brain areas, we conducted an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis 11, 12 and 13. ALE meta-analysis is a quantitative voxel-wise meta-analysis technique that compares the Fenbendazole results of neuroimaging studies using reported coordinates. Extensive inclusion criteria, included
studies and meta-analysis methodology can be found in the supplementary material and Tables S1 and S2. The analysis yielded several remarkable findings. First, overall there is rather low concurrence in the brain areas which are modulated, as reflected by the widespread cloud of plotted peak coordinates in Figure 1 and the low number of contributing experiments to significant clusters (Table 1). This could suggest that there is low overlap in brain regions where different personality characteristics modulate food-induced brain responses. However, considering the wide range of task-designs, subject groups and stimuli, the low concurrence could also be attributed to methodological differences between studies. This is further supported by the surprising finding that studies investigating the same personality characteristic (e.g.