In conclusion, the novel LH-mcrA fingerprint method may represent a valuable tool to estimate both the relative abundance and the diversity of archaeal methanogens in microbial systems. This high-throughput method could be useful for continued bioreactor monitoring with a view of predicting eventual failures. We thank Frédéric Tremblay, Nicolas Chaput and Bruno Morissette for technical help and Stephen Brooks for sequencing. This work was funded by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Sustainable Agriculture Environmental Systems (SAGES) research program. “
“This study enables
in situ studying of the growth and death of a large number of individual cells in a solid matrix. A wild type of Lactococcus lactis and several mutants with varying expression of GuaB was investigated. Large variability in the final size of individual microcolonies Buparlisib nmr arising from clonal cells was observed. However, when growth was averaged over 16 locations in a specimen, the SEM was small and notable differences could be observed between the investigated strains, where mutants with lower expression of GuaB had a slower growth rate. The
results show that the slow-growing mutants exhibited a lower fraction of dead cells, which indicate that slow-growing mutants are slightly more robust than the faster-growing strains. The large variability in the final size of individual Nivolumab mw microcolonies arising from clonal cells was quite surprising. We suggest that the control of the size of a microcolony is, at least partially, related to the actual microcolony depended on phenotypic heterogeneity. These findings are important to consider whenever a solid medium with discrete microcolonies is investigated. “
“Water kefir is a water–sucrose-based beverage, fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast to produce a final product that is lightly carbonated, acidic and that has a low alcohol percentage. The microorganisms present in water kefir are introduced via water kefir grains, which consist of
a polysaccharide matrix Org 27569 in which the microorganisms are embedded. We aimed to provide a comprehensive sequencing-based analysis of the bacterial population of water kefir beverages and grains, while providing an initial insight into the corresponding fungal population. To facilitate this objective, four water kefirs were sourced from the UK, Canada and the United States. Culture-independent, high-throughput, sequencing-based analyses revealed that the bacterial fraction of each water kefir and grain was dominated by Zymomonas, an ethanol-producing bacterium, which has not previously been detected at such a scale. The other genera detected were representatives of the lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Our analysis of the fungal component established that it was comprised of the genera Dekkera, Hanseniaspora, Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Torulaspora and Lachancea.