Patients who reported smoking status and no previous CVD prior to enrolment in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study were included in this study.
Smoking status is collected at each visit as current smoker (yes/no) and ever smoker BTK signaling pathway inhibitor (yes/no). Time since stopping smoking was calculated for persons who had reported current smoking during follow-up and no current smoking subsequently. Endpoints were: myocardial infarction (MI); coronary heart disease (CHD: MI plus invasive coronary artery procedure or death from other CHD); CVD (CHD plus carotid artery endarterectomy or stroke); and all-cause mortality. Event rates were calculated for never, previous and current smokers, and smokers who stopped during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were determined using Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, cohort, calendar year, family Bortezomib cell line history of CVD, diabetes, lipids, blood pressure and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 27 136 patients had smoking status reported, with totals of
432, 600, 746 and 1902 MI, CHD, CVD and mortality events, respectively. The adjusted IRR of CVD in patients who stopped smoking during follow-up decreased from 2.32 within the first year of stopping to 1.49 after >3 years compared with those who never smoked. Similar trends were observed for the MI and CHD endpoints. Reductions in risk were less pronounced for all-cause mortality. The risk of CVD events in HIV-positive patients decreased with increasing time since stopping smoking. Smoking cessation efforts should be a priority in the management of HIV-positive patients. Rates of cigarette smoking are high across most HIV-infected populations in developed countries. Studies have reported
at least a two-to-threefold increased rate compared with the general Decitabine research buy population, with 40–70% of HIV-positive patients reporting current smoking [1–6]. Smoking has been independently associated with morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients [7–11]; comorbid conditions include bacterial pneumonia [8,10,12], pulmonary disease [8,13], lung cancer [14,15] and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [7,16]. The contribution of smoking to the risk of myocardial infarctions (MIs) has also been shown to be considerably greater than other CVD risk factors. The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study demonstrated a twofold increased risk of MIs among current and previous smokers compared with nonsmokers. For other cardiovascular risk factors, the risk of MIs was increased by 16% per doubling in triglycerides, 20% per unit increase in total cholesterol, and 25% for patients with hypertension and diabetes .