, 2001) in future Besides the enhanced expression of cold adapta

, 2001) in future. Besides the enhanced expression of cold adaptation genes, accumulation of point mutations that enhance the activities of proteins at low temperatures

could be an alternative strategy for adaptation mTOR inhibitor to permanently cold environments. Given that hiC6 genes were differentially expressed in the two strains at 20 and 4 °C, we wondered whether the expressed isoforms of HIC6 have different cryoprotective activities. To answer this question, we cloned the encoding regions of NJ7hiC6-3 (NJ7hiC6-4 and -5 encode the same protein) and 259hiC6-1, -3 and -4, and expressed them as fusion proteins with 6His·tag in E. coli. In the fusion proteins, the N-terminal 36-amino acid transit signal of HIC6 (Joh et al., 1995; Honjoh et al., 1995) was deleted. The cryoprotection of LDH was assayed with different concentrations of HIC6 isoforms.

Bovine serum albumin was used as the positive control as in other reports (Honjoh et al., 2000; Griffith et al., 2005). The cyanobacterial RNA-binding protein 1 (Rbp1), which has a very slight protective effect on LDH, was used as the negative control. As seen with selleck chemicals the LDH residual activities after a freeze–thaw cycle, the cryoprotective activities of all four isoforms of HIC6 showed no differences from each other (Fig. 5). This result suggested that the amino acid substitutions in HIC6 made no or only a very slight contribution to the increased freezing tolerance of the Antarctic strain. HIC6 and HIC12 are two cold-inducible

LEA proteins found in Chlorella, both possessing cryoprotective activities. HIC6 has been shown to enhance the freezing tolerance in transgenic plants (Honjoh et al., 2001). Initially identified in C-27 of C. vulgaris (Joh et al., 1995; Honjoh et al., 1995), their encoding genes were also found 4��8C in the temperate strain UTEX259 and the Antarctic strain NJ-7 of C. vulgaris (Li et al., 2009). In this study, we identified a tandem array of five hiC6 genes in NJ-7 and a tandem array of four hiC6 genes in UTEX259 and investigated the differential expression of these genes. Unlike hiC6, hiC12 is present as a single gene in the two Chlorella strains (Y. Wang and X. Xu, unpublished). In C-27 and UTEX259, the expression of hiC6 can be detected at very low levels at 20–25 °C but was greatly induced after exposure at 3–4 °C (Joh et al., 1995; Li et al., 2009). In the Antarctic strain NJ-7, however, hiC6 genes can be expressed at a relatively high level even without cold induction, and the expression appeared to be less dependent on temperature. At the other extremity of temperature adaptation, the chilling-sensitive strain C-102 of C. vulgaris has no hiC6 (Joh et al., 1995). The induced expression of hiC6 probably reflects the seasonal changes of temperature in temperate regions. However, in the permanently cold environments of Antarctica the induction of hiC6 genes in response to cold stress might have been unnecessary and, consequently, hiC6 genes in C.

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