, 2004, Scott and Glasspool, 2005 and Bowman et al , 2009) Decay

, 2004, Scott and Glasspool, 2005 and Bowman et al., 2009). Decaying vegetation and fires deposited many parts of the land with layers of carbon located in soils, bogs, methane hydrate and methane clathrate deposits. The combination of surface carbon with the atmospheric oxygen emitted by photosynthesis, resulted in flammable land surfaces. Burial of

carbon in sediments has stored the carbon over geological periods—pending the arrival of Homo sapiens. Prior to the ignition of fire by Humans wildfires were triggered by lightening, incandescent fallout from volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts and spontaneous combustion of peat. The role of extensive fires during warm periods,

including the Silurian–Carboniferous (443–299 Ma) and the Mesozoic era (251–65 Ma), is represented by charcoal remains whose origin as residues from fires learn more is identified by their high optical refractive indices. Permian (299–251 Ma) coals formed during a period when atmospheric oxygen exceeded 30%, a level at which even moist vegetation becomes flammable, ATM signaling pathway may contain concentrations of charcoal as high as 70% (Glasspool et al., 2004, Scott and Glasspool, 2005 and Bowman et al., 2009). The appearance of a primate species that has learnt to ignite fire has led to a turning point in the Pleistocene. In terms of Darwinian evolution for the first time the carbon-rich Erythromycin biosphere interfaced with an oxygen-rich atmosphere could be ignited by a living organism, creating a blueprint for extreme rise in entropy in nature

and a mass extinction of species. As a direct consequence of the discovery of fire, according to Wrangham (2009) the cooking of meat and therefore enhanced consumption of proteins allowed a major physiological development into tall hairless humans—Homo ergaster and Homo erectus. The utilization of fire has thus constituted an essential anthropological development, with consequences related to bipedalism, brain size and the utilization of stone tools. Partial bipedalism, including a switch between two and four legged locomotion, is common among organisms, cf. bears, meerkats, lemurs, gibbons, kangaroos, sprinting lizards, birds and their dinosaur ancestors. Homo sapiens’ brain mass of 1300–1400 g is lesser than that of whales (brain ∼6 kg; body ∼50,000 kg) and elephants (brain ∼7 kg; body ∼9000 kg). Homo has a brain/body weight ratio of 0.025, higher than elephants and whales, similar to mice and lower than that of birds (∼0.08), whose high neocortex to brain ratio (Dunbar index) ( Dunbar, 1996) is related to their high sociability and enhanced communications.

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