) The infant responded well, allowing the gradual reduction of d

) The infant responded well, allowing the gradual reduction of dextrose and establishment of milk feeds by day 15. Magnetic resonance imaging brain scan and brain stem auditory evoked potentials at 3 weeks were normal. He was discharged on day 35. On discharge the infant required thrice daily blood glucose measurements, fluid restriction, chlorthiazide and diazoxide treatment, with an emergency plan should blood glucose levels fall below 3.0 mmol/l, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical including the application of ‘hypostop’ gel on the gums and immediate referral to the emergency department. He was reviewed

by a paediatrician at 3 and 5 months and was making appropriate developmental progress with no neurological sequelae of the profound hypoglycaemia. The infant’s medications were stopped Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical at 23 weeks. Comments To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case report of maternal olanzapine therapy being UMI-77 associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia due to hyperinsulinism. Hyperinsulinism is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates [Stanley and Baker, 1999]. As a consequence of the dominant effects of insulin, neonates with hyperinsulinism are especially susceptible to the adverse complications of hypoglycaemia. This is because of their inability to generate alternative fuels, such as ketones and up to 20% of infants with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hyperinsulinism have associated

neurological problems. Nongenetic causes of neonatal hyperinsulinaemia are transient and include prematurity, IUGR, maternal diabetes, sepsis, asphyxia, hypothermia, erythroblastosis foetalis, exposure to beta-agonist tocolytics and Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome [Stanley and Baker, 1999]. Although this Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical infant was SGA (probably related to smoking and/or cannabis),

the hyperinsulinism associated with this condition is usually relatively transient [Stanley and Baker, 1999]. Moreover, the association between IUGR and neonatal hypoglycaemia is usually the result of reduced glycogen and adipose stores rather than hyperinsulinaemia. Sodium valproate exposure GBA3 in pregnancy has been associated with newborn hypoglycaemia, but this seems unlikely to have been the cause here as it was stopped at 7 weeks gestation [Barrett and Richens, 2003; Coban et al. 2010]. Clinically, lithium does not have a major influence on glucose homeostasis or increase insulin levels [McIntyre et al. 2011]. There have been no reports of short-term maternal benzodiazepine treatment and neonatal hypoglycaemia. It is possible that undiagnosed gestational diabetes was present here. An oral glucose tolerance test was not carried out antenatally as close monitoring for gestational diabetes in mothers taking olanzapine during pregnancy is not recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines.

Operative choice was most

often dictated by high cellular

Operative choice was most

often dictated by high cellularity and tumor size rather than anatomic location (6). Higher rates of recurrence have been reported with local excision (67%) compared to APR (19%) in some series (17). In contrast, other series report similar outcomes regardless of surgical approach (18,19). Anorectal LMSs were traditionally thought of as resistant to both chemotherapy and radiation. However, this notion is largely based on sporadic case reports (19) or publications predating the advent of megavolt radiotherapy. More recent experience suggests a possible role for pre-operative Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in sphincter preserving surgeries, but the relatively Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical small series do not allow U0126 definitive conclusions (10,20,21). LMSs rarely metastasize through lymphatics and are more likely to spread through the lungs and liver through hematogenous spread (22-24). Recurrence rates for anorectal LMS are associated with high histological grade, large tumor size and incomplete surgical resection (16). Five year survival reported as varying between 20-25% with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical poor prognosis overall in rectal leiomyosarcomas (25-28). Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is one of the most common childhood soft tissue tumors, but represents less than 5% of malignant soft tissue lesions in adults (29-31). Anorectal presentation is extremely rare and is seen in less than 2% of cases (32). In this location, these Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tumors are thought to arise from the muscular layers of the bowel and the genitourinary tract. Most of the data on this disease originates from studies conducted between 1972 and 1997 by the Intergroup RMS Society for the RMS population aged 0-21 years (33). In these studies, cases with anorectal involvement were analyzed separately and a practice guideline has been developed (discussed below) (34). Although, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical designed originally for children, it is also used for adults, due to the small number of RMS cases in this population (35). It has been postulated that perineal RMS occurring at a younger age may have

a genetic predisposition and is related to other genetic syndromes such as Nijmegen breakage syndrome (36). No similar syndromic associations have been observed in adults. RMS is described as a grossly uncircumscribed CYTH4 lesion with multiple areas of spherical growth, often resembling a “bunch of grapes” that is soft in consistency. Histologically, it is divided into three major types: embryonal, including spindle and botryoid subtypes, alveolar and undifferentiated (37). As a result of its mesodermal/muscle tissue origin, RMSs tend to show multiple areas of muscle tissue at different stages of development. Embryonal type shows a spindle shape pattern often arranged in patches of highly cellular areas alternating with sparsely cellular areas containing mucoid cytoplasm which is often a hallmark of the diagnosis (38).

21-25 But in consensus meetings and reviews of factor analytic st

21-25 But in consensus meetings and reviews of factor analytic studies it was determined

that the term “reasoning and problem solving” had the “advantage of distinguishing this domain from working memory.” 26 Armed with these revised concept labels the team identified tests to measure this construct, but some tests upon which the original factor analytic studies were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical based were not evaluated further for various good reasons (eg, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test had figured heavily in prior research, but is ill-suited for application in clinical trials). Then several tests were proposed that had not been used in the factor analyses, and which are quite reasonably considered tests of “reasoning and problem solving” but would less likely Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical be selected as measures of “executive

functioning” and almost certainly would not be selected as measures of “frontal lobe functions.” For example, a maze-processing test was selected for the MATRICS final battery, even though no maze test was used in the original factor analytic studies, and while most scientists would agree that frontal function is important for maze performance, the contributions of nonfrontal systems are profound. Thus the construct label executive functions (associated with frontal system integrity), was split Into working memory and reasoning/problem solving, the latter of which was untethered from Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical its “frontal” system anchor. This highlights how breaking a construct into subcomponents can have unintended consequences, and in general shows that cognitive construct labels may be misleading. Indeed, it only becomes clear what the labels really mean when these are specified with respect to the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical actual test variables used to measure the

construct. These issues are discussed in greater detail elsewhere, along with other examples showing how construct labels may reflect fashion more than science, and calling for routine specification of constructs at the measurement level.27-29 For example, in one literature-mining exercise the term “cognitive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical control” was Histone demethylase defined completely at the measurement level by a set of four other labels including: working memory, response selection, response inhibition, and task switching/set shifting. Thus, the term “cognitive control” was used increasingly in the literature to describe results from the same tests that were previously branded with other labels. By the time Pribram had offered the coinage of executive functions and participated in the coinage of working memory, substantial see more progress had been made in recognizing key aspects of frontal lobe organization based on both clinical and basic research by Jacobsen, Halstead, Teuber, Luria, Fuster, Mishkin, Sanides, Stuss, Benson, and others.1,9,30-40 Among these contributions I single out for its elegance and simplicity the formulation of Luria1,41 as elaborated by Goldberg.

The 22-center Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (

The 22-center Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) is in the early stages of planning for a Phase I/II clinical trial using PROG in brain-injured children. The continuing stream of positive results seem almost too good to be true―especially in light of the history of PS341 failures to find an effective neuroprotective

agent. Some investigators25,33 have expressed concern that many, if not most, preclinical animal studies in TBI lack direct, translation to clinical relevance because they fail to meet certain standards similar Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations.34 While no one study may be able to meet all the STAIR recommendations, it is important to note that in the aggregate, the large Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical number of studies

on PROG do, in fact, meet such criteria as: Dose-response studies Statistical power analyses to determine sample size(s) Comparison with other agents thought to be effective, their antagonists, or knockout technologies to elucidate mechanisms Histological and functional outcome measurements to examine short- and long-term effects Monitoring of relevant variables during surgery Studies in both males and females Studies in different, models and species Replication of effects across laboratories (These criteria are derived from recommendations proposed by Loane and .Fadcn.33 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical They arc similar to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the STAIR recommendations for use in testing new drugs for the treatment, of stroke). Much of the growing

support for PROG as a potential treatment is likely based on its high safety profile and evidence of efficacy in animal and human testing, but, it, will be at least several more years before any conclusions concerning its Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neuroprotective benefits in largescale testing can be fully confirmed. Progesterone in stroke and neurodegenerative disorders Stroke has overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms with TBI, and the preclinical stroke data and recent, human studies in 1131 support a potential role for PROG in acute stroke. Recently we reported significant neuroprotective effects Tolmetin of acute post-injury administration of PROG in an adult rat model of permanent and transient (2 h) middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke.35-36 In different models of cerebral ischemia, PROG can significantly reduce the area of necrotic cell death and improve behavioral outcomes.37 Our findings corroborated other studies showing PROG to be neuroprotective following global ischemia in cats,38,39 and transient focal ischemia in rats.37,40 Several reviews and original research papers13,22,41-45 on the use of neurosteroids in stroke note favorable outcomes in reduction of infarct size leading to better functional status.42 Nevertheless, TBI and stroke are very different diseases, and there is no guarantee that PROG treatment will work in human stroke.

As mentioned earlier, there are a number of variables that contri

As mentioned earlier, there are a number of variables that contribute to the overall lymph node count in colorectal cancer specimens. We acknowledge the ease and perceived objectivity associated with using lymph node counts as a measure of specimen adequacy. However, we agree with multiple authors who have cautioned against using lymph node number Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as a measure of quality. In conclusion, we believe that the current CAP recommendation of 12-15 lymph nodes examined in a colorectal specimen is appropriate. Our

calculations suggest sampling 12-15 lymph nodes will yield a roughly 80% selleck products negative predictive value (NPV) for metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. There has been an increase in the use of multiple tools for better screening and earlier detection of colorectal carcinoma, which may improve the ability to detect cancers at an earlier stage. This will likely

be augmented Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical through education regarding the importance of screening and increase in access to appropriate medical care and diagnoses. There are a number Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of variables that dictate the number of lymph nodes retrieved in any given specimen. Therefore, even though lymph node counts provide a single, objective data point, the value these numbers yield remains unclear. The truest indicator of quality care remains the patient’s outcome. Acknowledgements Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

With a 5-year survival rate of only 5%, pancreatic cancer

is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States (1). Neoadjuvant therapy is increasingly utilized for patients with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pancreatic cancer with the goal of decreasing tumor burden in anticipation of later surgical resection (2,3). The intent is that, by local control and/or tumor down-staging with therapy, there will be a resultant survival benefit, which recent data has confirmed (4). The majority Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of patients are treated with a combination of gemcitabine, 5-FU and platinum compounds along with radiation therapy (5). Although the pool of patients who are candidates for neoadjuvant Sitaxentan therapy has been estimated to be only 4.5% of the overall number diagnosed with pancreatic cancer (3), this represents an important population for whom there is an opportunity to prolong survival and increase quality of life. Chemotherapy in patients with obstructing pancreatic cancers requires stenting to relieve the biliary obstruction, as many chemotherapeutic agents require functioning bilirubin transport mechanisms and bile excretion to avoid toxicity (6). Stent occlusion in these high-risk patients can lead to life-threatening complications. Metal stents have larger diameters than plastic stents, and therefore are less susceptible to occlusion.

Ambulation was started with a walking frame with full support, an

Ambulation was mTOR inhibitor started with a walking frame with full support, and the patient referred to geriatric inpatient for further physiotherapy management. Discussion Using tilt table for early rehabilitation of patients in ICU is a new trend of practice

among the therapists. A recent study had reported that early mobility in the ICU is safe, and can cause a significant decrease in short-term physical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical impairment.3 In our patient, we attempted early mobility for the patient using tilting table, a significant modern technique from our routine practice. In conventional physiotherapy practice, early mobilization is tried at the bedside by active assisted and active limb exercises. Besides, a therapist has to wait for many days until a patient can sit up unsupported before starting to train them for standing balance or some functional activities. So in traditional approach, the prolonged Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical bed rest complications might not be addressed effectively. However, tilting the patient stimulated a more functional movement and weight bearing pattern, improved the aerobic system, improved the gaseous exchange, and more likely contributed to the weaning the patient Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from the ventilator. The present case report stresses the benefits of using a tilt table, which prompts standing in a faster and better manner than other approaches. We suggest that even a weak and exhausted patient could

be considered for vertical positioning as long as the vital signs such as blood pressure, pulse rate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and arterial gas saturation are stable.6 This technique also gave the therapist more freedom to easily perform other exercises for the patient, since the therapist is no longer needed to support the patient. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical We think that it might even reduce the rate of

musculoskeletal disorders met by the therapist in ICU practice. To discuss the clinical reasoning of the tilt table management in ICU, recent studies stated there was improvement in the capillary membrane permeability, minute ventilation, and increased energy spending among patients in upright standing posture.7,8 This could be the possible reason for the change in the ventilatory features, which in turn leads to a better gas exchange. Zafiropoulous tuclazepam and colleagues believed that the betterments in physiologic changes were thought to be largely due to positional changes from supine to standing.9 The findings of the present case report are similar to those of an earlier report,5 in which patients, who had been ventilated for more than five days, were exposed to tilt table standing at 70 degrees from the horizontal for five minutes.5 The study showed that the patient’s tidal and minute ventilation increased significantly but temporarily.5 However, there is no documented randomized control trials that has examined the therapeutic benefits of using tilt table in an ICU setting.

However, contemporary neuroimaging technologies mentioned above (

However, contemporary neuroimaging technologies mentioned above (especially functional and pharmacological MRI, and PET) combined with behavioral approaches, offer a variety of new opportunities for the investigation of the limbic system in the living human brain.134,149,158,159 Thus, recent articles report the exploration of the corticolimbic circuitries in relation to emotion and cognition.158,160,161 Multimodal in vivo imaging studies add new information on the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala coupling,160 providing an advanced knowledge on the brain mechanism of certain pathophysiological effects of social anxiety disorder.134

As described above, 5-HT neurons send axons and terminals Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical throughout the entire brain and therefore can potentially interact with almost all the other neuronal systems via the diversity of 5-HT heteroceptors (ie, receptors expressed by neurons that do not synthesize 5HT).100 Recent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical investigations in mice indicate that other mechanisms could also contribute to the 5-HT signaling. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Thus, it was demonstrated that local infusion of fluoxetine (a SSRI) in the dorsal raphe nucleus stimulates the secretion of the protein S100-beta by 5-HT neurons projecting to the locus cereuleus. This protein downregulates the microRNA miR-16

in noradrenergic neurons which in turn switch on serotonergic functions.90 Reciprocally, classical neurotransmitters, especially GABAergic, catecholaminergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic, and histaminergic systems, influence the serotonergic neurotransmission at different sites, including the raphe nuclei. It is well

known that the raphe nuclei contain collections of non-5-HT Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neuronal elements (eg, GABAergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic) interacting with 5-HT cell bodies via their respective receptor subsets.162,163 Moreover, the richness in heteroreceptors Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (eg, alpha2-adrenoceptors, glutamatergic, histaminergic receptors) expressed by 5-HT terminals and other local mechanisms (eg, vesicular-filling synergy) mentioned above illustrate the extent of the reciprocal chemocommunication between serotonergic circuitries and other neurotransmitter networks. almost Other interactions of clinical importance concern the interaction between serotonergic neurotransmission and neuropeptidergic systems. It is well known that 5-HT influences the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis at multiple levels, playing a role in stress-related disorders. Thus, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptor agonists enhance CRH and ACTH secretion and, consecutively, cortisol and other hormone levels in the find more plasma.164,165 In turn, corticosteroids attenuate the activity of 5-HT1 A receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus, the hippocampal formation and the frontal cortex.

Although this

Although this stepwise strategy is aimed at identifying those most likely to have significant coronary or arterial diseases, in reality the picture is quite different. One study has shown that of 136,905 people presenting with coronary diseases, 77% had normal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels.2 Another study has shown that 22.4% of Cabozantinib research buy patients who suffered an initial heart attack and took statins to aggressively lower their cholesterol levels suffered a repeat event (including death from any cause, myocardial infarction, documented unstable angina requiring rehospitalization, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical revascularization,

or stroke) within 2 years despite having an LDL level of 62 mg/dL.3 An additional study has shown that the correlation between cholesterol levels and mortality from coronary diseases depends on geographical location.4 For example, in Japan, unlike the United States, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical little correlation was found

between cholesterol levels and mortality rates. The risk of a Japanese individual having an MI was similar both for people who had higher cholesterol levels and for people who had lower cholesterol levels. Four separate studies have shown that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical there is a relationship between stressful events such as earthquakes, missile attacks, stock market fluctuations, and even soccer matches and the incidence of acute coronary syndrome.5–8 Such events do not change cholesterol levels or the other classical risk factors, yet they may trigger an MI and sudden cardiac death. Even imaging the inside anatomy of the coronary Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical arteries does not ensure predictability. After performing an angiogram on a group of patients, the predictability as to which patient would be the first to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have an MI and where it would occur in the coronary arteries was low.9–12 Therefore, we must conclude that there are other risk factors involved

in causing the onset of MIs, and we are missing functional tests that can pinpoint patients at risk for coronary heart diseases and sudden cardiac death. THE PREDICTIVE Linifanib (ABT-869) VALUE OF ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION Acute coronary syndrome and sudden death is a dynamic process. The process occurs at the interface between the vascular wall and the circulating blood. Thus, it is important to develop a test that measures vascular function, not one that just measures cholesterol levels or takes images of the arteries. If an intact blood vessel is put into a glass vessel and acetylcholine is added to the buffer, a relaxation of the blood vessel will occur. However, if there is an injury to the endothelial layer of cells or the blood vessel, this reaction will not happen. The main molecule that mediates this reaction is nitric oxide (NO). Not all vessels or blood vessel segments react in a similar fashion.

This is a contrast to older drug classes (e g , barbiturates, ben

This is a contrast to older drug classes (e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and TCAs), where there is significant structural similarity between all drugs within the class. The clinical implication of this is that it would be difficult to design an ‘SSRI overdose screen’ or ‘atypical antipsychotic overdose screen’ with standard immunoassay technology. It also suggests that development of DOA/Tox Afatinib mouse immunoassays has not kept pace with the development of new drugs relevant to the ED community or with changes in patterns of abuse of illicit and

prescription drugs. The analytical methods currently used mainly for DOA/Tox confirmatory testing, such as GC/MS and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (LC/MS/MS), can specifically identify (and in some cases quantitate) drugs and their metabolites. This technology, however, is technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive compared to immunoassays, and usually available only at reference laboratories Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or in clinical laboratories associated with larger medical centers [7]. A future goal would be to develop and adapt GC/MS, LC/MS/MS, or a novel technology in a manner to be more widely Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical accessible clinically, so as to provide detailed drug exposure data with a rapid turnaround time, allowing ED physicians

to make more specific diagnoses and treatment plans. A scientifically similar challenge is in emerging technology to develop portable yet analytically robust sensors for chemical warfare agents or environmental Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pollutants [72], and there may be opportunities to develop clinical applications using related technology. An important limitation of the 2D similarity approach used in our study is that this cannot account for the complex

three-dimensional (3D) molecular interactions that mediate antibody-antigen binding as occurs in immunoassays. To our knowledge, a 3D structure of an antibody used in a marketed DOA/Tox screening immunoassay bound to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical its antigenic target has not been reported, although there has been structural determination of several other antibodies being evaluated as novel antidotes to DOA overdose (e.g., PCP [73] and cocaine [74,75]), in which the antibody interacts with all portions of the target molecule. For DOA/Tox screening immunoassays where similar antibody-drug interactions apply, whole molecule similarity measures (as used in our study) seem appropriate for prediction; however, this may not always be the case. A crystal structure of morphine Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase bound to a monoclonal antibody showed that the antibody interacted with the more hydrophobic portion of morphine, while the hydrophilic half was mostly solvent exposed [76]. For target compounds like morphine, similarity searching using substructures may therefore be worth evaluating, although depending on the size of the molecule, complexity, and novelty this may yield many more molecules predicted as positives.

In addition, second malignant neoplasms occur in 3% to 6% at 20 y

In addition, second malignant neoplasms occur in 3% to 6% at 20 years following diagnosis.41 Irradiation and alkylating agents are primary risk factors for these secondary tumors. The risk increases over time, with 12% of WT survivors developing second malignancies at 50 years. The secondary malignancies include bone cancer, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, central nervous system (CNS) tumors often occurring 10 or more years later, as well as leukemia, following treatment with

alkylating agents or topoisomerase II inhibitors.42 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Renal cell carcinoma has occurred in survivors of neuroblastoma and WT.41,43 Post-treatment fertility problems can occur due to surgical injury to genital structures, neurologic impairment, cranial or gonadal irradiation, and chemotherapy.

Although the ovary is relatively Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical radioresistant to chemotherapy, ovarian failure can develop after abdominal irradiation. It is dose related and can result in delayed puberty and premature menopause.44 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Premature menopause can also occur after chemotherapy. In males, hypogonadism and temporary azoospermia can result following gonadal radiation.45 Although Leydig cells are more radioresistant than germ cells, high-dose radioONX-0914 purchase therapy can lead to inadequate testosterone production and delayed sexual maturity. Alkylating agents can also result in testicular

dysfunction.46 Semen preservation should be considered in the pubertal male, and testicular cryopreservation has recently been reported.47 In women who undergo abdominal/pelvic irradiation, pregnancy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical outcomes may be affected, with increased rates of miscarriage and prematurity and lower birth weight infants reported.48 Chemotherapy alone does not appear to adversely affect pregnancy. Bladder dysfunction can result from pelvic or CNS surgery, pelvic irradiation, or alkylating agent chemotherapy such as cyclophosphamide. It is usually seen Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in patients with bladder/prostate RMS. Yeung and much colleagues studied the effects of irradiation in 11 patients with pelvic RMS who had bladder preservation followed for a mean of 6.6 years.49 Seven of these children received radiation therapy and all had reduced bladder capacity (11%–48%) and enuresis, whereas four children who did not receive radiation had normal bladder function. A later study by Raney and coworkers reported continence outcomes in 164 patients over age 6 years of age with bladder/prostate RMS followed for a median of 8 years.50 Of the 62 patients who did not undergo cystectomy, 31% were incontinent. Of the 44 patients who underwent partial cystectomy, 27% were incontinent. Only 11 patients underwent urodynamics and 8 of the studies were abnormal.