This article reviews current society guidelines, highlighting sim

This article reviews current society guidelines, highlighting similarities and differences, in an attempt to form a general consensus on

surveillance for patients with IBD, while drawing attention to controversial areas in need of further research. Most societies agree that all patients with a history of UC (even isolated proctitis) and Crohn’s colitis should be offered a screening colonoscopy approximately 8 to 10 years after the onset of clinical symptoms to re-stage extent of disease and evaluate for endoscopic features that confer a higher risk for IBD-associated Enzalutamide in vitro CRN (IBD-CRN). The exception is the NICE guideline,6 which recommends only offering colonoscopic surveillance to patients with Crohn’s colitis involving more than 1 segment of the colon or left-sided or more extensive UC, but not isolated ulcerative proctitis. All societies recommend that patients with PSC and UC should be enrolled in a surveillance program at the time of diagnosis. During the initial screening examination, restaging biopsies are recommended to determine disease extent and severity. The signaling pathway extent of disease is defined by the maximum documented extent of disease on any colonoscopy. All societies recommend surveillance colonoscopy for UC patients with

left-sided or extensive colitis (thus excluding patients with isolated proctitis),1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 and for Crohn’s Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) colitis involving more than 1 segment of the colon6 and 18 or at least one-third of the colon.2, 3, 5 and 8 The BSG considers patients with Crohn’s disease of less than 50% of colonic involvement, regardless of grade of inflammation, as lower risk, but does offer surveillance at the longest (5-year) intervals.1 The ACG guidelines recognize the possible increased risk of cancer in long-standing Crohn’s disease, but state that surveillance guidelines have yet to be defined, and do not endorse a screening or surveillance

strategy.19 All patients with UC and Crohn’s colitis should be offered a screening colonoscopy to restage the extent of disease and evaluate for endoscopic features that confer a higher risk for IBD-CRN. Current guidelines base screening for IBD-CRN primarily on duration of disease. The risk of IBD-CRN increases over time, although estimates of risk vary in the literature. Meta-analysis of older studies estimated an increase in risk over time, with a cumulative CRC risk of 2% at 10 years, 8% at 20 years, and 18% after 30 years of colitis.20 More recent population-based studies have demonstrated a lower overall risk, from 2.5% at 20 years, to 7.6% at 30 years, and 10.8% at 40 years of extensive UC.

The lack of Ang-(1–7) action through Mas receptor increased level

The lack of Ang-(1–7) action through Mas receptor increased levels of serum NEFA and decreased the response of adipocytes

to the antilipolytic effect of insulin. In fat cells, insulin inhibits the mobilization of NEFA by decreasing the rate of lipolysis and/or increasing the lipogenic rate and lipid storage. Insulin resistance in adipose tissue is characterized Sirolimus by decreased suppression of adipose tissue lipolysis by insulin, resulting in elevated circulating NEFA levels [19]. Increased NEFA concentrations leads to serine/threonine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 and IRS-2), subsequently reducing the ability of the IRS to activate phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and glucose transport [28]. Recently Giani et al. [14] demonstrated that infusion of Ang-(1–7) in rats resulted in a reversal of fructose-induced insulin resistance through the IR/IRS/PI3 K/Akt pathway in the main target of insulin: skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. These findings are in accordance with the observation that transgenic rats, with chronic elevation of plasma Ang-(1–7), improved

responsiveness to insulin stimulation and increased total and phosphorylated Akt in adipose tissue [24]. In addition, previous work from our group have shown that Mas-knockout mice presented glucose intolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity as well as a decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by adipocytes and decreased GLUT4 in adipose tissue [25]. Olaparib purchase Previous studies have shown that Mas-deficient mice present lack of several Ang-(1–7) actions, mainly concerning to behavior and cardiovascular regulation [1]. Mas receptor deletion abolished the vasodialator effect of Ang-(1–7) in vitro and also induced a hypertensive state in FVB/N mice. All these data are followed by dysbalance between nitric oxide IKBKE and reactive oxygen species in the vessel wall of Mas-KO. Recently studies have shown that Mas knockout mice presented a prothrombotic profile [12], altered calcium signaling on cardiomyocytes [10] and renal dysfunction

[21]. In conclusion, the absence of Ang-(1–7)/Mas axis induces important alterations in adipose tissue, evidenciated by decreased insulin sensibility in adipocytes, which might be consequent to: (1) decreased mRNA expression of PPARγ; (2) exacerbation of Ang-II action as a consequence of the missing contraregulation by Ang-(1–7), via receptor Mas. EGM – conducted the animal experiments, generation and collection of data, and helped draft and revision of the manuscript. SHSS – participated in the generation and collection of RT-PCR data and helped the revision of the manuscript. AVMF – participated in the generation and collection of RT-PCR data. MB – generated mice lacking the Mas protooncogene. RASS – helped draft and revision of the manuscript, approval of the final version of the manuscript.

The reason for this is that it is practically impossible to make

The reason for this is that it is practically impossible to make direct measurements of the heat production. The most one can do is to take simultaneously defined empirical quantum yields of fluorescence Φfl and of photosynthesis Φph and use them to calculate the yields of the heat production as values complementary to the unity of the sum of the quantum yields of fluorescence and photosynthesis, that is, on the basis of relationships that are rearrangements of equation (1). Apitolisib manufacturer Unfortunately, I neither possess nor have been unable to find in the available

literature such data containing yield ΦH indirectly determined empirically for different environmental conditions in the sea in quantities sufficient to make statistical generalizations. In this situation, to derive the model of the dependence of the heat production in the sea on environmental FK866 in vivo factors I have used two models that I developed

independently or in cooperation with others, the successively updated versions of which were published in the reports mentioned below. These are models of two complementary means by which the excitation energies of pigment molecules in the photosynthetic apparatus are dissipated, namely, photosynthesis in the sea and the Sun-Induced Chlorophyll a Fluorescence (SICF) in the sea. These models and the results of the subsequent modelling performed on their basis will now be described. As already mentioned, the model description of the dependence of the heat production in the sea on environmental factors, presented in this work, is a kind of synthesis of two models that I developed earlier

independently or with the cooperation of other scientists. The first is the model of photosynthesis in the sea and, in particular, its quantum yield Φph. It was developed successively, starting in 1992 (Woźniak et al., 1992a, Woźniak et al., 1992b, Woźniak et al., 1995, Woźniak et al., 2002, Woźniak et al., 2003, Woźniak et al., 2007, Dera, 1995 and Ficek et NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase al., 2000), and the latest synthetic version can be found in Ostrowska (2012). This model is founded on the results of statistical analyses of primary production measured in situ, and the basic environmental parameters governing this production (temperature, irradiance, chlorophyll concentration) in different trophic types of basins of the World Ocean, though mainly in the Black and Baltic Seas. The other model I am going to use in this work is the model of the quantum yield of the natural fluorescence of chlorophyll a in the sea Φfl, which I have been working on since 2009 ( Ostrowska, 2010 and Ostrowska, 2011); the latest updated version will be found in Ostrowska (2012).

25 μg/mL fungizone, 100 U/mL penicillin and 100 μg/mL streptomyci

25 μg/mL fungizone, 100 U/mL penicillin and 100 μg/mL streptomycin. HaCaT cells were given fresh medium every 72 h and subcultured

at a ratio of 1:5. Normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) primary CH5424802 mouse cells were obtained from Lonza (Walkersville, MD). NHEK were isolated from a 68 year old Caucasian male donor. The cells were maintained in KBM-Gold (Lonza, Walkersville, MD) supplemented with KGM-Gold™–BulletKit™ (Lonza, # 00192060). NHEK were seeded at a density of 3500 cells/cm2 and given fresh media the day after seeding and then every 48 h until reaching 70–80% confluency. The human epidermal melanocyte primary cells isolated from a light pigmented donor were obtained from Gibco (HEMa-LP) (Carlsbad, CA), and are referred to as normal human melanocytes (NHM). NHM cells were maintained in Medium 254 supplemented with PMA-free Human Melanocyte Growth Supplement-2 (HMGS-2, Gibco, # S-016–5) 0.25 μg/mL fungizone, 100 U/mL penicillin and 100 μg/mL streptomycin. The cells were seeded at a density of 5000 cells/cm2 and given fresh media the day after seeding and then every 48 h until reaching 80% confluency. HaCaT, NHEK and Primary Melanocytes were

seeded at a 1:10 ratio and the next day they were treated with 1 or 3 μM 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZC) (Sigma–Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) or 1, 3 or 10 μM MS-275 (ALEXIS Biochemicals, Lausen, Switzerland). The cells were allowed to grow to confluency and then harvested for RNA isolation. Total RNA was isolated from the cells according to the protocol supplied with GW-572016 TRI REAGENT (Molecular Research Center, Inc. Cincinnati, OH) as described previously by this laboratory (Somji et al., 2006). Real time RT–PCR was used to measure the expression level of MT-3 mRNA utilizing a previously described MT-3 isoform-specific primer (Somji et al., 2006). For analysis, 1 μg was subjected to complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis using the iScript cDNA synthesis kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) in a total volume of 20 μl. Real-time PCR was performed utilizing

the SYBR Green kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories) with 2 μl of cDNA, 0.2 μM primers in a total volume of 20 μl in an iCycler iQ real-time detection system (Bio-Rad Laboratories). Amplification was monitored HDAC inhibitor by SYBR Green fluorescence and compared to that of a standard curve of the MT-3 isoform gene cloned into pcDNA3.1/hygro (+) and linearized with Fsp I. Cycling parameters consisted of denaturation at 95 °C for 30 s and annealing at 65 °C for 45 s which gave optimal amplification efficiency of each standard. The level of MT-3 expression was normalized to that of β-actin assessed by the same assay with the primer sequences being sense, CGACAACGGCTCCGGCATGT, and antisense, TGCCGTGCTCGATGGGGTACT, with the cycling parameters of annealing/extension at 62 °C for 45 s and denaturation at 95 °C for 15 s.

Next we examined how the fastest rhythm in the network, the gamma

Next we examined how the fastest rhythm in the network, the gamma rhythm, was related to simultaneous theta and, in the simulations demonstrating a pattern completion phenomenon, alpha oscillations. To this end, n:m phase synchrony and phase-amplitude coupling effects were evaluated buy Epacadostat for different pairs of rhythms. The strongest phase-amplitude coupling was observed between theta and gamma oscillations (strength of modulation, PLVPAM=0.80, see Experimental

procedures) with gamma amplitude lowest at the peaks of theta (cf. Jacobs and Kahana, 2009) in accordance with the modulatory effect of theta phase on pyramidal cell firing ( Fig. 8A). The phase-amplitude modulation for theta-alpha and alpha-gamma pairs was estimated at ~0.75 and ~0.70, respectively. As can be seen in Fig. 8A, a similar hierarchy

of coupling relations was also found with 1:3 phase synchrony (PLV1:3) for theta-alpha and alpha-gamma rhythms, and 1:9 for the theta-gamma pair. In the simulations of memory replay analogous results for theta and gamma coupling ( Fig. 8B) were reported. In conclusion, gamma appeared as a basic unit in a hierarchical organization of neural oscillations consistently with biological evidence ( Basar et al., 2001, Lakatos et al., 2005, Canolty this website et al., 2006, Sirota et al., 2008, Schroeder and Lakatos, 2009, Canolty and Knight, 2010 and Palva et al., 2010). We also investigated how spiking activity was controlled within this hierarchy of LFP rhythms. The spike phase distributions indicated larger width of modulation by slower theta oscillations than faster gamma ( Fig. 8A and B). Finally, to connect our work with theories based on experimentally observed precise spatiotemporal firing patterns, we investigated the repetitive occurrence of those in the simulations

with cued memories. For 50 reactivations of the same pattern, we used a “sliding tape algorithm” (Abeles and Gerstein, 1988; see Experimental procedures) to identify all multi-neuronal sequential firing patterns consisting of at least three spikes and occurring more than twice (Fig. 9A and B). We found significantly more such patterns than expected at a chance level. In the oscillatory regime, we could observe a higher number 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase of spatiotemporal spike patterns that occurred at least three times within a trial despite considerably higher firing rates in the regime without gamma and alpha oscillations (25 compared to 8 s−1 on average). Finally, clear differences in the distribution of the total spike sequence durations (time span) vs. the number of their reoccurrences (Fig. 9C and D) reflected the modulatory effect of the underlying alpha rhythm on firing patterns in the oscillatory case. We used a biophysically detailed attractor network model, which with minor modifications was adapted to simulations of two memory phenomena – memory pattern completion and periodic replay of memory items.

XML has been used for a while in other areas of NMR – Agilent’s V

XML has been used for a while in other areas of NMR – Agilent’s VNMRJ package employs it for window layout description and an XML specification was recently proposed for phase cycles [22]. A graphical representation of the SpinXML schema is given in Fig. 1. At the bottom of the SpinXML complex type (CT) hierarchy are objects intended to formalize the description of spin interaction tensors – for each

interaction, amplitude and orientation information should be given. Vector and matrix complex types are not native in XML and are therefore specified explicitly as collections of double-precision real numbers. One level up, the first physically significant NVP-LDE225 mouse complex type in the SpinXML hierarchy is orientation – a property of anisotropic

spin interactions that makes use of the vector and matrix CTs. Four different ways of specifying orientation are supported ( Fig. 1, top right corner), corresponding to the four most popular rotation conventions in Magnetic Resonance – Euler angles [23] (in degrees), angle-axis [24] (angle in degrees, unit norm vector), unit quaternion [25] and direction cosine matrix (DCM) [26]. Euler angles and quaternion specifications are simple lists of the corresponding numerical parameters, whereas DCM invokes an instance of the above mentioned matrix CT and angle-axis parameterization makes use of the vector CT for the rotation axis vector. The SWITCH click here bar that connects the four specifications indicates that only one of the four options may be invoked in each instance of the rotation CT. At the level of the software package

making use of SpinXML, the parser function should be able to interpret all four rotation conventions and should be able to write at find more least one – from our experience working with rotation specifications in Magnetic Resonance context, we strongly recommend DCM as the default convention. SpinXML makes no attempt to rectify the well-documented ambiguities inherent in Euler angles [10], it only serves as a container. At the next level in the complex type hierarchy shown in Fig. 1, SpinXML formalizes the three general styles of spin interaction specification that are encountered in the daily practice of Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy – a scalar (isotropic interaction not requiring orientation specification), a 3 × 3 matrix (anisotropic interaction with orientation information already contained in the matrix) and [eigenvalue data] + [orientation data] pair. The three styles are related by a SWITCH bar ( Fig. 1 upper left corner). The scalar specification simply requires a double, and the matrix specification an instance of the matrix CT.

05) ( Fig 3A–F) Cell invasion is one of the steps involved in m

05) ( Fig. 3A–F). Cell invasion is one of the steps involved in metastasis. To determine whether biflorin was involved in this process, the authors first ensured that the inhibition of invasion was not due to cell death. Thus, the viability of MDA-MB-435 melanoma cancer cells was assessed after 8 and 12 h of treatment with 1, 2.5 and 5 μM biflorin. As shown in Fig. 3C, cell death was not observed in any of the concentrations

of biflorin and durations of incubation tested. However, a strong and dose-dependent reduction in the invasion of MDA-MB-435 cells through the Matrigel matrix was observed after the treatment with 1, 2.5 and 5 μM biflorin (38.25 ± 9.53; 16.5 ± 3.31 and 2.25 ± 0.95, respectively).In comparison, this was not observed in the negative Protease Inhibitor Library supplier control (55.00 ± 3.9) (Fig. 4A and B). Additionally, biflorin did not inhibit the adhesion of MDA-MB-435 cells to any of the ECM substrates tested (data not shown). The cadherins are a family of a cell to cell adhesion molecules that have been implicated in the invasive process (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2011). To determine whether the inhibition of invasion by biflorin was related to N-cadherin protein levels, a western blot

was performed. After 12 h of biflorin treatment, the protein levels of N-cadherin were down-regulated in a dose dependent manner Birinapant in vivo (Fig. 4C and D). To further understand the signaling pathways involved in the inhibition of invasion, 4��8C the expression levels of AKT-1 was assessed. 36B4, acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0, was used as a reference gene. AKT-1 mRNA levels were down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner by 94.65, 76.25 and 21.35%, by 1, 2.5 and 5 μM biflorin, respectively ( Fig. 4E). After 12 h of treatment with 5 μM biflorin, the AKT-1 (p < 0.05) mRNA level was decreased by 5-fold (p < 0.05). Melanoma is one of the most invasive and deadly forms of skin cancer, and only a few agents are available for treating advanced disease to enable long-term patient survival. However, these agents are relatively ineffective, with overall response rates of 5–20%. This finding supports

the need for identifying new compounds that inhibit the pathways that are deregulated in melanoma (Eggermont and Robert, 2012 and Sharma et al., 2009). Anticancer drug development strategies are usually aimed at directly inhibiting the growth of the primary tumor or reducing the existing tumor burden. Therapeutic agents that can inhibit metastasis could be an option for preventing colonization, thereby enabling the containment of the primary tumors in a chemically manageable form (Pérez and Danishefsky, 2007 and Hedley et al., 2004). In this study, using melanoma cell lines as a model for invasion studies, we investigated the ability of biflorin, an ortho-naphthoquinone, to treat solid tumors. We also investigated the EMC substrates, Fibronectin and types I and IV collagen, and the expression of N-cadherin and AKT1.

The endoscopic knowledge, equipment, and techniques have evolved

The endoscopic knowledge, equipment, and techniques have evolved in recent years, contributing to a paradigm shift in the diagnosis and endoscopic resection of CRC precursors. The nonpolypoid (flat or depressed) colorectal neoplasms (NP-CRNs) play a significant role in the genesis of interval CRCs.9 Such subtle-appearing lesions are indeed more likely missed or incompletely resected endoscopically than their polypoid counterparts, and a subgroup of them harbor an aggressive biologic behavior. This article provides insight into the magnitude and most common factors Anti-diabetic Compound Library chemical structure underlying the cause of interval CRCs during surveillance

for IBD. Milestones of the literature regarding CRC risk in patients with IBD are reviewed. Specifically examined to the occurrence of interval CRCs are the contribution of missed, incompletely resected lesions; the adherence to surveillance; and distinct biologic features of the inflamed mucosa. Key principles are presented for ensuring the quality of IBD surveillance practice. A casual glance at the overall incidence

of CRC in patients with IBD reveals discrepant outcomes, with a few studies showing similar CRC rates in patients with IBD versus the general population,10 and 11 whereas others show greater rates.12, 13 and 14 In a nationwide cohort of close to Ivacaftor clinical trial 50,000 Danish patients with IBD who were followed over three decades (1979–2008), CRC was identified in 338 (0.71%) cases (268 in patients with UC and 70 in patients with Crohn’s disease).10 The overall CRC risk among patients with UC in this study was similar to that of the general population (relative risk, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, ASK1 0.95–1.21). In contrast, a North American study15 conducted from 1998 through 2010 found that the incidence of CRC in patients with Crohn’s disease or UC was 60% higher than in the general population. The Danish study found a marked decline in the

overall relative risk of CRC among patients with UC over the past decades, from 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.13–1.58) in 1979 to 1988 to 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.80) in 1999 to 2008,10 possibly reflecting refinements in the anti-inflammatory arsenal (ie, immunosuppressive therapy, biologicals), but perhaps also caused by a gradual adoption of CRC screening and surveillance. Conversely, the North American study15 found a fairly stable CRC rate in patients with IBD over time. Controversies surrounding the time-trends in CRC risk are not surprising, and likely reflect the cumulative effect of several factors, such as advancements in endoscope technology, a greater awareness, and improvements in the quality of colonoscopic performance. As a common denominator, such epidemiologic studies lack relevant information about the disease duration, degree and extent of inflammation, presence of risk factors (ie, primary sclerosing cholangitis, personal or family history of CRC), and patients’ compliance with the recommended follow-up.

The supernatants were collected for the assays Activation of cas

The supernatants were collected for the assays. Activation of caspase-9 is based on hydrolysis of the substrate n-Acetyl-Leu-Glu-His-Asp7-amido-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin

(Ac-LEHD-AFC) by caspase-9, resulting in the release of fluorescent 7-amino-4-trifluromethyl coumarin (AFC) moiety, while hydrolysis of the peptide substrate acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (Ac-DEVD-AMC) by caspase-3, resulted in the release of the fluorescent 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC) moiety. Reaction were performed AZD0530 in vivo in buffer containing supernatant proteins (50 μg/sample for caspase-9 and 25 μg/Sample for caspase-3) and caspase substrates, at 37 °C for 2 h, followed by fluorimetric detection using the excitation and emission wavelengths of 400/505 nm and 360/460 nm for caspase-9 and caspase-3, respectively. The experimental data were evaluated using the analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Dunnet test for the

comparison of the various treated groups with their controls, using the GraphPrism program, version 5.1 for Windows. The results were considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. The results showed that the congener BDE-99 inhibited cell proliferation after 24 and 48 h CT99021 supplier of incubation, showing significant effects at the higher concentrations tested (18.22 ± 6.42% and 41.77 ± 10.5% for 10 μM and 25 μM, respectively) after 24 h of exposure. A significant effect was observed for concentrations as low as 0.5 μM when the cells were exposed to the compound for 48 h (Fig. 1). Moreover, it was also demonstrated that the congener BDE-99 was able to induce a decrease in cell viability during both incubation periods for almost all the concentrations that lead to an inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation (Fig. 2). These results demonstrated that there is a correlation between the effects observed in the first two experiments. Fig. 3 shows

FAD the effect of BDE-99 on the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The MMP also changed after exposure to 10 and 25 μM of the compound for 24 h. This effect was intensified after 48 h of incubation, showing significant effects in concentrations as low as 0.5 μM. Similar results to those of the MMP assay were observed in the ROS accumulation test. Fig. 4 shows a significant increase in ROS accumulation after 24 h of incubation with BDE-99 at the highest concentration tested (25 μM). However when the effect was evaluated for 48 h, the exposure to 5 μM of the compound was sufficient to significantly increase ROS accumulation in the HepG2 cells. To better understand the mechanism by which BDE-99 induces cell death, we evaluated the exposure of phosphatidyl serine on the outer cell membrane by assessing the FITC-annexin-V positive cells. Fig.

While this model revealed distance to active gas wells as exhibit

While this model revealed distance to active gas wells as exhibiting a negative control on methane concentrations, this does not indicate that gas wells are definitively causing higher methane concentrations; since these gas wells are inherently

producing from methane-rich strata this may indicate that methane concentrations are higher in close proximity to these particular formations, but it is not possible to discern the cause of the relationship without further investigation. Crizotinib Sulfate was also found to be negatively correlated to methane in this model, providing further evidence for some biologically driven methane production. This follows thermodynamic principles given that sulfate reduction yields more energy than methanogenesis; thus methane is produced when sulfate concentrations are reduced ( Schlesinger, 1997).

The three most significant variables in the model (p < 0.001) – hardness, sodium, and barium – together could explain 77% of the observed variation in dissolved methane. We acknowledge that including both sodium and hardness could introduce some multicollinearity into the model since sodium and hardness (as the sum of magnesium and calcium) tend to be negatively correlated; however, we find that removing either sodium or hardness from the model strongly reduces its predictive power, indicating that they are both contributing to it. These results are informative for better understanding the drivers of observed methane patterns. Sodium was positively correlated with methane concentrations

and hardness was negatively correlated with methane. This is consistent with previously described geochemical patterns that indicated that methane likely resulted from bedrock-groundwater interactions and lengthy residence times. The positive correlation between barium and methane concentrations also indicates that there is a geologic relationship with methane patterns. While barium can be present Tau-protein kinase due to human activities, including use in gas well drilling mud, it also is naturally present in geologic formations. Barium has been found in western New York to be primarily sourced from the mineral barite (BaSO4) ( Moore and Staubitz, 1984), which may also be present in formations underlying this study region. Using measured environmental variables, regression models for methane were developed with high explanatory power. While these models were developed using data from Chenango County, New York, they could have similar predictive power in nearby areas of New York and Pennsylvania with similar shale-dominated bedrock geology. With other studies in New York observing some higher methane concentrations than here (Kappel and Nystrom, 2012 and Heisig and Scott, 2013), it will be important to refine this model to try to better capture these patterns. In the future, it would also be beneficial to work toward creating improved regression models based on more easily quantified parameters (e.g.