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27. Hsu YF, Djurisic AB, Tam KH, Cheung KY, Chan WK: Fabrication and characterization of ZnO/TiO x nanoscale heterojunctions. J Crystal Growth 2007, 307:348–352.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions The experiments and characterization presented in this work were carried out by YZG, YG, and ZYY. The experiments were designed check details by YZG and HLL. YZG, YG, YZ, ZYY, QQS, SJD, HLL, and DWZ analyzed and discussed the results obtained from the experiments. The manuscript was prepared by YZG, and HLL helped with draft editing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The study of the quantum properties of low-dimensional and doped structures is central to many nanotechnology applications [1–15]. Quantum devices in silicon have been the subject of concentrated recent interest, both experimental and theoretical,
including the recent discussion of Ohm’s law at the nanoscale . Efforts to make such devices have led to atomically precise fabrication methods which incorporate phosphorus atoms in a single monolayer of a silicon www.selleckchem.com/products/sc79.html crystal [17–20]. These dopant atoms can be arranged into arrays  or geometric patterns for wires [16, 22] and associated tunnel junctions , gates, and quantum dots [24, 25] – all of which are necessary components of a functioning device . The patterns themselves define atomically abrupt regions of doped and undoped silicon. While silicon, bulk-doped silicon, and the physics of the phosphorus incorporation
 are well understood, Fossariinae models of this quasi-two-dimensional phosphorus sheet are still in their initial stages. In particular, it is critical in many applications to understand the effect of this confinement on the conduction band valley degeneracy, inherent in the band structure of silicon. For example, the degeneracy of the this website valleys has the potential to cause decoherence in a spin-based quantum computer [28, 29], and the degree of valley degeneracy lifting (valley splitting) defines the conduction properties of highly confined planar quantum dots . The importance of understanding valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped Si:P structures has led to a number of theoretical works in recent years, spanning several techniques, from pseudo-potential theories via planar Wannier orbital bases , density functional theory (DFT) via linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) bases [31, 32], to tight-binding models [33–37] and effective mass theories (EMT) [38–40].