Analogous approach of dipolarophile is also observed in the react

Analogous approach of dipolarophile is also observed in the reaction with N-arylmaleimides.”
“Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of

denture-related oral mucosal lesions (DML) in Sao Francisco sertao microregion, in Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil.

Study Design: Data related to gender, age, type of denture, length of denture use, hygiene care, nocturnal denture wear, symptoms, and presence of DML were obtained. Statistical analysis included the Pearson’s chi-square and multivariate logistic regression.

Results: The global prevalence of DML was 50%, with a significant association between the DML and female gender, age >= 40 years, and length of use >= 5 years. By using the interaction model of logistic regression it was observed that females over 40 years have 4.5 greater odds of developing DML compared to males Nocodazole mw of the same age group. The DML more common was the type 2 denture stomatitis, followed by type 1 denture stomatitis and inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia.

Conclusions: This study shows that the DML are more common in female over 40

Nutlin-3a years of age, suggesting that hormonal chances and age-related factors may favor the development of lesions. In addition, there is a significant association between length of denture use and prevalence of DML.”
“Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction GSK690693 purchase syndrome is characterized by the prolonged but reversible constriction of cerebral arteries accompanied by a sudden onset of severe headache, and is sometimes complicated by subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral infarction. It is associated with various clinical conditions and treatments, although the precise pathophysiology is not understood. In particular, several cases of this syndrome have been described to occur in middle-aged women within 1 week of a blood transfusion. We encountered a patient with a reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome who became symptomatic 3 months after a blood transfusion. No other cause for the syndrome was

found. This case suggests that the risk for the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction may persist for months after blood transfusion.”
“The achievement and maintenance of a protein native conformation is a very complex cellular process involving a multitude of key factors whose contribution to a successful folding remains to be elucidated. On top of this, it is known that correct folding is crucial for proteins to play their normal role and, consequently, for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis or proteostasis. If the folding process is affected, the protein is unable to achieve its native conformation, compromising its life and function, and a pathological condition may arise.

“Gastric cancer (GC) is still a leading cause of cancer-re

“Gastric cancer (GC) is still a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and environmental, genetic, and epigenetic DNA changes are involved in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to establish the extent of DNA Rapamycin research buy methylation at various CpG islands in GC and in precancerous changes [gastric noninvasive neoplasia (NIN)]. Eighty-one gastric samples were analyzed using methylation-specific PCR at several CpG islands. Thirty-eight samples were obtained at surgery [19 neoplastic (GC) and 19 nonneoplastic cancer-surrounding tissues (sGC)] and 43 at endoscopy

(biopsies in 23 NIN patients and 20 controls). Hypermethylation of TPEF (a growth inhibitor), PTGER3 (a prostaglandin receptor isoform), and MINT31 (a promoter locus regulating calcium channels that is involved in p53 mutation) discriminated NIN and GC from normal mucosa, suggesting an early role as initiating events, whereas

hypermethylation at ARGHAP20 developed with the progression from NIN to GC. MINT31 hypermethylation predicted persistence or worsening of NIN and cancer development. In conclusion, these data support a progressive accumulation of aberrant methylations in NIN and GC at various ZD1839 nmr CpG islands with distinct time courses. With hypermethylation, the genes involved in regulating the balance between apoptosis and cell proliferation may become silenced and trigger gastric tumorigenesis. Hypermethylation of MINT31 predicted NIN persistence, as well as progression to higher grade or to GC, and might be used as a marker of GC risk. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 21:442-448 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical

bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Gastric bypass surgery is an effective intervention to manage morbid obesity. However, there have been suggestions that patients who do not QNZ price comply to follow-up lose less weight. This study evaluated the influence of patient’s follow-up compliance on weight loss post gastric bypass surgery. From the search of MEDLINE and EMBASE, four studies (n = 365) were identified and majority of these studies concluded that compliance with follow-up leads to increased weight loss. Our meta-analysis of these studies found increase in the percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) at 1-year post gastric bypass surgery (mean difference 6.38 % %EWL, 95 % CI 1.68-11.15) when patients were compliant with follow-up. Therefore, this review found that continued long-term follow up of gastric bypass patients has the potential to increase postoperative weight loss.”
“Background: Neurologic involvement in Behcet’s disease (BD), also known as neuro-Behcet’s disease (NBD), is one of the most devastating manifestations of the disease. The etiology of BD remains obscure and speculative. NBD usually occurs 1-10 years after the first symptom of BD has occurred, and its incidence is 18% (range of 4%-49%).

Conclusions: The study highlights the importance of taking a broa

Conclusions: The study highlights the importance of taking a broader approach to examining partner caregiving in the context of stroke, in terms of the caregiving relationship and their influence on the health and well-being of caregivers.”
“Hydroxyethyl cellulose find more Acetate (HECA) was prepared starting from hydroxyethyl cellulose

(HEC), acetic anhydride and perchloric acid which was used as catalyst. The synthesized product was characterized by FTIR, C-13 NMR, and H-1 NMR. Substitution degree (DS) of HECA was determined using FTIR spectra taking a classical titration method as reference. The H-1 NMR spectroscopy was also used to confirm the results obtained by FTIR. The DS is substantially affected by the temperature, the time of reaction and especially the equivalent number (eq. nb.) of the acetic anhydride added. We have studied and discussed in the context of usage in modification reactions, the solubility of the HECA samples buy AICAR by varying their DS. This investigation was based on the determination of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (chi(SP)) using the partial

Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). HSP of HEC and the HECA samples were calculated from the Van-Krevlen-Hoftyze (VKH) method and the T. Lindvig approximation. We have focused our work on predicting and controlling family solvents of HECA with various DS, to facilitate and to optimize the homogenous modification reaction conditions. From results BTSA1 concentration on a range of HECA samples, it is conclude that their prediction solubility

taking the value of DS into account is possible, and then the surface modification can relatively be easily realized. The thermal analysis study shows some differences in T-g and thermal degradation between HEC and HECA, moreover these thermal temperatures are influenced by DS values. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122:2952-2965, 2011″
“PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and spherical IOL implantation with peripheral corneal relaxing incisions to manage astigmatism during phacoemulsification.

SETTING: Ophthalmology Service, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

DESIGN: Prospective randomized comparative case series.

METHODS: Eyes with cataract and corneal astigmatism (1.00 to 3.00 diopters [D]) had toric IOL implantation or peripheral corneal relaxing incisions. Outcome measures were visual outcomes, slitlamp assessment, digital toric IOL axis determination, spectacle need, and patient satisfaction.

RESULTS: Three months postoperatively, the mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was 0.13 +/- 0.10 (SD) in the toric IOL group and 0.19 +/- 0.12 in the relaxing incisions group; the UDVA was better than 0.20 in 75% of eyes and 60% of eyes, respectively. Refractive cylinder decreased significantly in both groups, with a mean residual refractive astigmatism of 0.61 +/- 0.41 D in the toric IOL group and 1.32 +/- 0.60 D in the relaxing incisions group (P<.01). The mean toric IOL rotation was 3.

It plays an important role in selective activation of the nitrate

It plays an important role in selective activation of the nitrate assimilation pathway during growth under a limited supply of nitrate. P(II) was recently shown to regulate the activity of NtcA negatively Citarinostat molecular weight by binding to PipX, a small coactivator protein of NtcA. On the basis of accumulating genome information from a variety of cyanobacteria and the molecular genetic data obtained from the representative strains, common features and group- or species-specific characteristics of the response

of cyanobacteria to nitrogen is summarized and discussed in terms of ecophysiological significance.”
“Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the incidence of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in orthopedic outpatients who are treated with lower limb casts and were not Elafibranor mouse on any DVT prophylaxis. Material and Method: We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of DVT in a district general hospital

over a 1-year period. The names of the patients with proven DVT were cross-checked from the outpatient plaster register to identify those who had lower limb cast treatment and not on any DVT prophylaxis. Results: There were 381 patients who have had lower limb casts and treated as outpatients. In all, 7 patients developed DVT during the period of cast immobilization as outpatients and of these 4 patients were detected to have an associated pulmonary embolism. Discussion: Incidence of DVT among patients with Selleck PFTα lower limb casts varies. At present, there

is no clear guideline on the DVT prophylaxis for those outpatients who are at risk. Our results show that even though the proven DVTs were low, the potential of developing a pulmonary embolism in these patients is high and should be prevented. Conclusion: Risk stratification could be beneficial to identify high-risk patients. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis should be discussed for those orthopedic outpatients who are at high-risk of developing thrombosis during immobilization and treatment with lower limb casts. This article emphasis the need for a uniform national guideline in the management of such patients.”
“Saccharomyces cerevisiae, like other microorganisms, has evolved different mechanisms to survive under adverse conditions. The adaptation of yeast to cell wall stress is mainly regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. The characterization of genome-wide transcriptional profiles to different cell wall stresses has allowed the identification of those genes important for cell wall remodelling under these circumstances. Moreover, profiling of mutant strains deleted in different elements of these pathways revealed the complexity of the signal transduction machinery responsible for regulating adaptation responses to cell wall stress in yeast. In addition to increase understanding of these adaptive responses, the molecular dissection of these signalling networks could impact on the development of effective new antifungal agents.

Deregulation of these pathways occurs during infection by pathoge

Deregulation of these pathways occurs during infection by pathogens, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Thus, an appreciation of the importance of cyclic nucleotide signaling in the intestine furthers our understanding of bowel disease, thereby aiding in the development Tariquidar price of therapeutic approaches. (C) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Report of case series

To report a problem with bioabsorbable poly-l-lactide-co-d, l-lactide, PLDLLA, posterior lumbar instrumented fusion (PLIF) cage implants.

Synthetic bioabsorbable implants have recently been introduced to spinal surgery and their indications and applications are still being explored. There is evidence that the use of bioabsorbable

cages may be of benefit in interbody spinal fusion.

We present a

case series of nine patients who have undergone PLIF with bioabsorbable cages in the lumbar spine.

At follow-up over at least 1 year, four of these patients were found to have osteolysis around the implant on CT scanning. One of these patients underwent an operation to remove the cage and histology sent during surgery Selleckchem OSI-906 suggested that the implant had caused the bone loss and there was no evidence of infection. Another patient had ongoing pain in relation to the lysis, while the other two patients with lysis remained asymptomatic.

PLDLLA cage, which has high osteolytic nature, is considered not suitable as a fusion cage.”
“Introduction: Adiponectin is increased in end-stage renal disease. However, efforts to clarify the cause of that increase and its clinical effects have been inconclusive. The aim of this study was to compare serum adiponectin levels of dialysis patients against healthy individuals and evaluate the relationship among adiponectin levels, IL-6, TNF-alpha and left ventricular mass index (LVMI).

Methods: Adiponectin, IL-6 and TNF-a measurements and echocardiographic

evaluations were performed in 36 hemodialysis, 30 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients and 22 healthy volunteers. Adiponectin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels were measured by ELISA.

Results: Adiponectin was found to be higher in hemodialysis (52.78 +/- 18.01 ng/mL) and CAPD (52.96 Nepicastat +/- 17.53 ng/mL) groups than controls (28.36 +/- 13.20 ng/ mL; p = 0.0003, p = 0.0003, respectively). No difference was observed between the hemodialysis and CAPD groups. Adiponectin was positively correlated with IL-6 (r = 0.293, p = 0.02), TNF-alpha (r = 0.458, p = 0.0003) and LVMI (r = 0.283, p = 0.02). In the partial correlation analysis, by controlling for body mass index, the correlation between adiponectin and TNF-alpha (r = 0.466, p = 0.0003) persisted. When IL- 6 was controlled with TNF- a, the relation between adiponectin and LVMI disappeared (r = 0.145, p = 0.30).

PR episodes at 2 h were 55% for F and 59% for comparators (p = NS

PR episodes at 2 h were 55% for F and 59% for comparators (p = NS). SPF episodes at 48 h were also similar between

the two groups (22% F vs. 21% comparators). Rate of recurrence was significantly (p < 0.001) lower under F (27 vs. 40% comparators). Drug-related adverse events were significantly (p < 0.05) less under F, particularly cardiovascular symptoms. Our systematic analysis of individual studies suggests that F has a similar immediate efficacy, but a more sustained effect and a better tolerability than R, Z and A.”
“Urinary catheters are standard medical devices selleck screening library utilized in both hospital and nursing home settings, but are associated with a high frequency of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). In particular, biofilm formation on the catheter surface by uropathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe problems. Here we demonstrate that type 1 and type 3 fimbriae expressed by K. pneumoniae enhance biofilm formation on urinary catheters in a catheterized bladder model that mirrors the physico-chemical conditions present in catheterized patients. Furthermore, we show that both fimbrial types are able to functionally compensate for each other during biofilm formation on urinary catheters. In situ monitoring of fimbrial expression revealed that neither of the two fimbrial types is expressed when cells are grown planktonically. Interestingly, during biofilm formation on catheters, both fimbrial types

are expressed, suggesting that they are both important in promoting biofilm formation on catheters. Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor Additionally, transformed into and expressed by a nonfimbriated Escherichia coli strain, both fimbrial types significantly increased biofilm formation on catheters compared with the wild-type E. coli strain. The widespread occurrence of the two fimbrial types in different species of pathogenic bacteria stresses the need for further assessment of their role during urinary tract infections.”
“The emulsifying (emulsion capacity (EC), emulsion activity/stability indices (EAI-ESI) and creaming stability (CS)) and physicochemical (surface charge/hydrophobicity, protein solubility,

interfacial tension, and droplet size) properties of canola (CarI) and flax (FIPI) CBL0137 molecular weight protein isolates produced by isoelectric precipitation and salt extraction were investigated relative to whey protein isolate (WPI). Both protein source and method of production were found to have significant effects on the physicochemical and emulsifying properties of both protein isolates. All proteins carried a net negative charge at neutral pH, whereas surface hydrophobicity for CaPI and FIPI (similar to 120.6) was found to be significantly higher than that of WPI (similar to 61.9). CaPI and FIPI produced by salt extraction showed higher solubility and interfacial activity compared to those produced by isoelectric precipitation. CaPI showed significantly higher EC (similar to 515.6 g oil/g protein) than FIPI (similar to 498.

Cutaneous reactions to bedbug bites can include macules, papules,

Cutaneous reactions to bedbug bites can include macules, papules, wheals, vesicles, bullae, and nodules. Bites may be confused with other skin conditions. Bedbug bite reactions are typically self-limited and resolve within one to two weeks without treatment. Bedbug infestation may cause significant psychological distress. The diagnosis of a bedbug

infestation is based on history, appearance of bites, and inspection of sleeping quarters. Although there is no evidence that bedbugs transmit Selleckchem AZD6244 disease, systemic reactions may include asthma, angioedema, generalized urticaria, iron deficiency anemia, and, rarely, anaphylaxis. An integrated pest management strategy should be employed to eliminate infestation. Tactics include vacuuming, heat or cold treatment, trapping devices, and pesticides. (Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(7):653-658. Copyright (c) 2012 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”
“The AZD1208 nmr aim of this study was to experimentally evaluate temperature monitoring with a FluoropticA (R) temperature probe in the presence of laser irradiation from a Nd:YAG laser, which is mainly used for clinical MR-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy. Temperature measurements were performed using a FluoropticA (R) probe in comparison

to a thermocouple probe in a gel phantom and an ex vivo pig liver at distances of 6.5 to 14 mm to the laser applicator (laser energy of 30.8 W). To evaluate the artifacts in the temperature measurement, the laser was turned on Sapanisertib cost and off three times during the entire experiment. A comparison of the fiber-optic measurements with MR thermometry was also performed in pig liver by means of the proton resonance frequency method at a distance of 6 mm. Depending on the distance, the temperature measured by the fiber-optic probe deviated from the thermocouple probe temperature. The phantom deviations of 0.4 to 34.3 % were observed. The differences in the liver were smaller and ranged from 1.6 to 5.2 %. The

Bland-Altman mean of differences between MR and fiber-optic temperature measurements was 0.02 A degrees C and the 95 % limits of agreement value was +/- 2.25A degrees C. During laser application, considerable artifacts occurred in the FluoropticA (R) measurements in short distances which was induced by laser energy absorption by the probe coating. No artifacts were verifiable at a distance of 14 mm in both mediums. The good conformity with MR thermometry resulted from the shorter turn-on times of the laser since the laser irradiation had only a minor effect on the measurements.”
“To provide an overview on the role of gut immunity, nervous system and motility patterns in the development of feeding intolerance in newborns. Maturation of the GI is important not only for digestion and absorption, but for endocrine and exocrine function as well.

In fact, there is great variability worldwide in neonatal platele

In fact, there is great variability worldwide in neonatal platelet transfusion practice, due to the lack of concrete evidence to guide transfusion decisions. Evidence-based guidelines do not exist to decide when platelet transfusion should be given. The practice of neonatal platelet transfusions is based almost entirely on expert opinion and reasoning. Consequently, these practices, not supported by definitive data, vary widely. To increase benefits and safety, new widespread changes in platelet transfusion guidelines are necessary. New transfusion paradigms should not be based on reasoning

alone, but on important experimental validation. The neonatologists would better accept them and more closely adhere to.”
“The laser intervertebral disc decompression may provide appropriate relief in properly selected patients with contained disc herniations. The present investigation check details aims to characterise intervertebral disc material by autofluorescence induced by laser light. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc is associated with progressive biochemical changes in disc material. Percutaneous laser disc decompression has become rather popular for the treatment

learn more of lumbar disc herniation, but there are problems in the selection of patients. For this purpose, recognition of the disc composition is necessary. We propose a new type of spectroscopic investigation. It is advantageous to the characterization of intervertebral disc material. Intervertebral disc specimens were removed during open surgery from different disc locations. Preoperative patients’ MRI was evaluated using the Pfirrmann disc degeneration and Komori scale for migrating of herniated nucleus pulposus. Adjacent slices of stained disc sections were evaluated by histology/histochemistry and autofluorescence spectra. Comparison of the MRI, spectral, histological and histochemical selleck chemicals llc data was performed. The MRI Komori scale correlated with the histology Boos degeneration index. In the histochemistry, collagens other than collagens I and II of the disc were distinguished with best positive correlation coefficient (0.829) and

best negative one (-0.904) of proteoglycans of sequester to Boos index. A correlation of the IV Gaussian component of the hernia spectra with the Boos index was established. The Gaussian component correlation with different collagen types and proteoglycan was determined for the disc and sequester. “”Autofluorescence-based diagnosis”" refers to the evaluation of disc degeneration by histological and histochemical evaluation; it can provide additional data on the degeneration of an intervertebral disc.”
“Chia seed mucilage could be used as industrial additive due to its outstanding physical properties. However, not many reports about this gel have been published, maybe due to it remains tightly bounded to the coat seed during processing.

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 122: 1731-1741,

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 1731-1741, 2011″
“An analytical method is developed for determining net sputtering rate for an MgO layer under hot ions with low energy (<100 eV) in a neon-xenon discharge gas at near-atmospheric pressure. The primary sputtering LGX818 purchase rate is analyzed according to spatial and energy distributions of the hot ions with average energy, E(i)(h), above a threshold energy of sputtering, E(th),(i), multiplied by a yield coefficient. The threshold energy of sputtering is determined from dissociation energy required to remove an atom from MgO surface multiplied by

an energy-transfer coefficient. The re-deposition rate of the sputtered atoms is calculated by a diffusion simulation using a hybridized probabilistic and analytical method. These calculation methods are combined to analyze the net sputtering rate. Maximum net sputtering rate due to the hot neon ions increases above the partial pressure

of 4% xenon as E(Ne)(h) becomes higher and decreases near the partial pressure of 20% xenon this website as ion flux of neon decreases. The dependence due to the hot neon ions on partial pressure and applied voltage agrees well with experimental results, but the dependence due to the hot xenon ions deviates considerably. This result shows that the net sputtering rate is dominated by the hot neon ions. Maximum E(Ne)(h) (E(Ne),(h)(max) =

5.3 – 10.3 eV) is lower than E(th),(Ne) (19.5 eV) for the MgO layer; therefore, weak sputtering due to the hot neon ions takes place. VX-680 Cell Cycle inhibitor One hot neon ion sputters each magnesium and each oxygen atom on the surface and distorts around a vacancy. The ratio of the maximum net sputtering rate is approximately determined by number of the ions at E(i),(h)(max) multiplied by an exponential factor of -E(th),(i)/E(i),(h)(max). (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3554687]“
“Cryopreservation is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to lipid peroxidation of the sperm membrane and consequently a reduction in sperm motility and decreased fertility potential. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of L-cysteine needed for cryopreservation of boar semen. Twelve boars provided semen of proven motility and morphology for this study. The semen was divided into four portions in which the lactose-egg yolk (LEY) extender used to resuspend the centrifuged sperm pellet was supplemented with various concentrations of L-cysteine to reach 0 mmol L(-1) (group I, control), 5 mmol L(-1) (group II), 10 mmol L(-1) (group III) and 15 mmol L(-1) (group IV). Semen suspensions were loaded in straws (0.5 mL) and placed in a controlled-rate freezer.

1 compared with the internal jugular, p = 0 031) and time from cl

1 compared with the internal jugular, p = 0.031) and time from clot detection until final duplex (odds ratio = 1.052 per day, p = 0.032).

Conclusion: A majority of UE DVT’s are CA, more than half resolve before discharge, and 2% embolize. Anticoagulation does not appear to affect outcomes, but line removal does result in a quicker decrease in clot size.”
“Pulmonary inflammatory reactions are affected by one-lung ventilation (OLV) and anesthetic agents. However, the effects of anesthetic agents on pulmonary inflammatory reactions may vary.

Our previous investigations suggested that inflammatory reactions were more pronounced in the dependent lung during lung resection under general anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil. Therefore, in the present study we attempted to determine the difference in pulmonary inflammatory reaction using either sevoflurane or propofol Vorinostat datasheet in both dependent and nondependent lungs during OLV.

Forty adult patients undergoing elective lung resection were randomized to receive either propofol (n = 20) or sevoflurane (n = 20) as the main anesthetic agent. Intraoperative analgesia was provided by remifentanil in both groups. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) was obtained from each lung using a bronchoscopic microsampling method. ELF and plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays before and after OLV.

Epithelial lining

fluid levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly increased in the dependent lung and the nondependent lung after OLV compared with baseline levels (P Entinostat concentration GW786034 research buy < 0.05). Moreover, IL-6 ELF level in the dependent lung was significantly higher in the propofol group than in the sevoflurane group after OLV (P < 0.001).

One-lung ventilation induced inflammatory responses of the bronchial epithelia in the dependent lung and the nondependent lung during lung resection. Moreover, this inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by sevoflurane compared with propofol. Furthermore, the antiinflammatory effect of sevoflurane was more pronounced in the dependent lung than in the nondependent lung during OLV.”

function of the bladder outlet is complex and symptomatic consequences can result from outlet dysfunction. Within the outlet, smooth, and skeletal muscles constitute the contractile apparatus, but additional cell types include interstitial cells and neuroendocrine cells, and various transmitters are present in the innervation, raising the possibility of unrecognized functional subtleties. Key outlet functions are; maintained closure for urine storage, increased closure (guarding) during exertion, sustained opening for voiding, transient opening for territorial marking in animals and orthograde male ejaculation. These are co-ordinated by several spinal and higher CNS centers, with overlap of the somatic, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.