Platelet activation in response to atherosclerotic plaque

Platelet activation in response to atherosclerotic plaque Apoptosis inhibitor rupture or endothelial cell detachment can result in pathologic thrombus formation and acute ischemic events. Current oral antiplatelet agents, aspirin and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists, are effective

but associated with bleeding as they target activation pathways critical for protective hemostasis and pathologic thrombosis. Each inhibits a single platelet activation pathway and does not impact activation by thrombin. The lack of complete inhibition of platelet function allows continued thrombus formation and recurrent thrombotic events. Inhibition of the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) stimulated by thrombin offers a rational strategy to achieve more comprehensive platelet inhibition when used in combination with standard-of-care, dual antiplatelet therapy. We expect that this new approach may mitigate bleeding risk, because PAR-1 is not essential for hemostasis.”
“Objective: To report the time of delay in thrombolysis of massive and submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: We enrolled 83 consecutive patients with massive and submassive PE from 8 hospitals between June 2006 and March 2009. We recorded the delay between symptom onset and thrombolysis. The clinical findings related to early thrombolysis (delay <= 2 days) were analyzed.

Results: Median of the delay in thrombolysis was 8 days with 82% over 2 days, 53% over 7 days, and 6% over 25 days. Compared to the late thrombolysis (delay > 2 days), patients with

early thrombolysis more frequently had murmurs at the tricuspid area (26.7% vs 6.1%, P = .053), less frequently had cough (20% vs 59.7%, P = .005) and increased P2 (pulmonic component of second heart sound; 33.3% vs 61.2%, P = .049), and more patients were thrombolysed in off-hours (86.7% vs 57.4%, P = .034). Conclusion: The time of delay in thrombolysis is too long and the symptoms and signs between early and late thrombolysis groups may differ.”
“Owing to its unique host cell-dependent development cycle, Chlamydia pneumoniae occupies an intracellular niche that enables the bacterium to survive and to multiply, secluded from both the extracellular and the cytoplasmic environments. Within its separate chlamydial inclusion, it is able to genetically switch between a replicative and a persisting FRAX597 non-replicative state, linking the pathogen to acute as well as chronic diseases. Although its role in acute respiratory infection has been established, a potential link between chronic vascular infection with C. pneumoniae and the development of atherosclerosis remains enigmatic, in particular because chronic chlamydial infection cannot be eradicated by antibiotics. C. pneumoniae has developed numerous mechanisms to establish an adequate growth milieu involving the type III secretion-mediated release of chlamydial effector proteins that interact with cellular structures and reprogram host cell regulatory pathways.


Fewer children in the USA have become living d


Fewer children in the USA have become living donors in the past decade. Preadolescent children in particular should probably be considered as potential donors only in extraordinary circumstances. Safeguards protect not only children, but transplant physicians, programs and the image of the transplant endeavor.”
“Objective: Determine whether

elevated second trimester maternal serum a-fetoprotein (AFP) is associated with clinical and histopathologic markers of inflammation at preterm delivery. Methods: 105 women <32 weeks’ gestation were included. AFP levels were dichotomized at 2.0 multiples of the median (MoM). Rates of neonatal morbidities, clinical see more chorioamnionitis, cord blood IL-6 level, and placental inflammatory findings were compared. Results: Thirteen (12.4%) had elevated AFR Fewer women with AFP >= 2 MoM had Cyclosporin A ic50 histologic placental or membrane rupture site inflammation, funisitis, or placental culture positive for Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species, compared to those with normal AFR Neonatal death

was increased in the elevated AFP group (23.1% vs. 2.27%, RR 10.6). Elevated AFP was associated with a nonsignificant increase in indicated birth (54% vs. 35%; p = 0.225). Virtually all inflammatory findings were confined to the spontaneous delivery group. Conclusion: Selleck 5-Fluoracil Elevated midtrimester AFP conveyed significant risk of neonatal death, but was negatively associated with clinical or histopathologic inflammation in preterm infants.”
“Purpose of review

Because of the ongoing organ donor shortage, transplant tourism is occurring at an increasing rate both in the USA and abroad. To date, there have been little published data to help guide the programmatic philosophy of the USA

transplant centers regarding transplant tourism.

Recent findings

We summarize position statements from several transplant societies regarding transplant tourism and specifically transplantation occurring in China (because of the use of executed prisoners as organ donors). Transplant tourism is ever increasing and patients may be at risk for greater post-transplant morbidity as well as inadequate follow-up care. Transplant centers require some guidance with regard of how to deal with these patients.


Transplant tourism is an increasing reality facing the USA transplant centers. Most professional societies do not condone it yet cannot abrogate a physician’s right to care for such patients. Ethical principles mandate transplant physicians provide adequate care for returning transplant tourists. Better ways of assessing the scope of the problem are necessary.

However, diagnostic excisional methods, including loop electrosur

However, diagnostic excisional methods, including loop electrosurgical excision procedure and cold knife conization, are associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes, such as preterm labor and low birth weight. Methods of endometrial assessment have a high sensitivity for click here detecting endometrial carcinoma and benign causes of uterine bleeding without unnecessary procedures. Endometrial biopsy can reliably detect carcinoma involving a large portion of the endometrium, but is suboptimal for diagnosing focal lesions. A 3- to 4-mm cutoff for endometrial thickness on transvaginal ultrasonography yields the highest

sensitivity to exclude endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women. Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy can differentiate globally thickened endometrium amenable to endometrial biopsy from focal abnormalities best assessed by hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the most sensitive and specific method of diagnosing endometrial carcinoma, other than hysterectomy. (Copyright (C) 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”
“Few educational opportunities exist in paediatric cardiac critical care units (PCCUs). We introduced a new educational activity in the PCCU in the form of of patient-specific

summaries (TPSS). Our Ro-3306 objective was to study the role of TPSS in the provision of a positive learning experience to the multidisciplinary clinical team of PCCUs and in improving patient-related clinical outcomes in the PCCU.

Prospective educational intervention with simultaneous clinical assessment was undertaken

in PCCU in an academic children’s hospital. TPSS was developed utilizing the case presentation format for upcoming week’s surgical cases and delivered once every week to each PCCU clinical team member. Role of TPSS to provide clinical education was assessed using five-point Likert-style scale responses in an anonymous survey 1 year after TPSS provision. Paediatric cardiac surgery patients admitted to the PCCU were evaluated for postoperative outcomes for TPSS provision period of 1 year and compared with a preintervention period of 1 year.

TPSS was delivered to 259 clinical team members including faculty, fellows, residents, nurse practitioners, nurses, respiratory therapists and others from the Divisions of Anesthesia, Cardiology, Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Critical Care, and Pediatrics working in the PCCU. Two hundred and twenty-four (86%) members responded to the survey and assessed the role of TPSS in providing clinical education to be excellent based on mean Likert-style scores of 4.32 +/- 0.71 in survey responses. Seven hundred patients were studied for the two time periods and there were no differences in patient demographics, complexity of cardiac defect and surgical details. The length of mechanical ventilation for the TPSS period (57.08 +/- 141.

Although unable to

reach consensus on a number of issues,

Although unable to

reach consensus on a number of issues, the working group produced 5 recommendations. The working group offers 2 recommendations addressing the criteria necessary to determine when genetic results JQEZ5 mouse should and may be returned to study participants, respectively. In addition, it suggests that a time limit be established to limit the duration of obligation of investigators to return genetic research results. The group recommends the creation of a central body, or bodies, to provide guidance on when genetic research results are associated with sufficient risk and have established clinical utility to justify their return to study participants. The final recommendation urges investigators to engage the broader community when dealing with identifiable communities to advise them on the return of aggregate

and individual research results. Creation of an entity charged to provide guidance to institutional review boards, investigators, research institutions, and research sponsors would provide rigorous review of available data, promote standardization of study policies regarding return of genetic research results, and enable investigators and study participants to clarify and share expectations for the handling of this increasingly valuable information with appropriate respect for the rights and needs of participants. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2010;3:574-580.)”
“Objective: PS-095760 To examine the prevalence and correlates of substance use during pregnancy among women in the United States.

Methods: We analyzed data from pregnant (n = 1800) and non-pregnant women (n = 37,527) aged

15-44 years who participated in the 2002 or 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a nationally representative epidemiologic Survey. Study variables included demographics, any Substance use in the prior 30 days, and possible current psychopathology. Data were analyzed using weighted chi-square and multiple logistic regressions that accounted for the complex survey design.

Results: The overall prevalence of any past month substance use during pregnancy was 25.8%; the prevalence rates of past month illicit Selleck VS-6063 drug, cigarette and alcohol use were 4.7%, 18.9%, and 10%, respectively. Compared to the prevalence of substance use among Women in their first trimester, use Was Significantly lower among women in their second or third trimesters. Women who reported using Substances during pregnancy were significantly more likely to meet the criteria for possible current psychopathology and be White. Additionally, women who were employed, married, and in their second or third trimester compared to the first were significantly less likely to have used any Substance during pregnancy, adjusting for age, ethnicity and income.

Although the 3′-CITE of non-adapted MNSV-M alpha 5 is active in s

Although the 3′-CITE of non-adapted MNSV-M alpha 5 is active in susceptible

melon, it does not promote efficient translation in N. benthamiana, thus preventing expression of proteins required for virus replication. However, MNSV-M alpha 5 gains the ability to multiply in N. benthamiana cells if eIF4E from a susceptible melon variety (Cm-eIF4E-S) is supplied in trans. These data show that N. benthamiana resistance to MNSV-M alpha 5 results from incompatibility between the MNSV-M alpha 5 3′-CITE and N. benthamiana eIF4E in initiating efficient translation of CT99021 datasheet the viral genome. Therefore, non-host resistance conferred by the inability of a host susceptibility factor to support viral multiplication may be a possible mechanism for this type of resistance to viruses.”
“Drug delivery in the brain is limited by slow drug diffusion in the brain tissue. This study tested the hypothesis

that ultrasound can safely enhance the permeation of drugs in the brain. In vitro exposure to ultrasound at various frequencies (85 kHz, 174 kHz, and 1 MHz) enhanced the permeation of tritium-labeled molecules with molecular weight MRT67307 mouse up to 70 kDa across porcine brain tissue. A maximum enhancement of 24-fold was observed at 85 kHz and 1,200 J/cm(2). In vivo exposure to 1-MHz ultrasound further demonstrated the ability of ultrasound to facilitate molecule distribution in the brain of a non-human primate. Finally, ultrasound under conditions similar to those used in vivo was shown to cause no damage to plasmid DNA, siRNA, adeno-associated virus, and fetal rat cortical neurons over a range of conditions. Altogether, these studies demonstrate that ultrasound can increase drug permeation in the brain in vitro and in vivo under

conditions that did not cause detectable damage.”
“Abnormal autoimmune activity has been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, the authors discuss a newly recognized class of synaptic autoimmune encephalitides as well as behavioral and cognitive manifestations of systemic autoimmune diseases. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011; 23:90-97)”
“Changes selleck screening library in the duration, quality and intensity of light affect flowering time. Compared with the effects of light duration and quality, less is known about the effects of light intensity on flowering. Here we describe two paralogous single Myb domain genes, MYB-RELATED PROTEIN 1 (MYR1) and MYB-RELATED PROTEIN 2 (MYR2), and their roles as repressors of responses to decreased light intensity in Arabidopsis. Homozygous myr1 myr2 double mutants flowered early under low light intensities. Additionally, myr1 myr2 mutants exhibited increases in petiole length, leaf angle and apical dominance. Genetic analyses involving mutants in the long-day, gibberellin (GA) and phyB flowering pathways indicated that all aspects of the myr1 myr2 phenotype required GA biosynthesis.

9%) and five fresh and two cryopreserved ICSI-derived embryos res

9%) and five fresh and two cryopreserved ICSI-derived embryos resulting in three clinical pregnancies (42.9%). This research has shown IVF to be a legitimate fertilization technique for IVM

oocytes in PCOS patients and provides a greater awareness of the use of a fertilization method previously not utilized with IVM. RBMOnline (c) 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: INCB28060 Long-stem tibial components are available for complex primary and revision total knee arthroplasties. Most of the stems’ designs are based on anatomic data from Western populations. We conducted a morphologic study to determine the relationship of the tibial shaft to the tibial plateau in Chinese people.

Methods: We included knees from fifty Chinese individuals (twenty-five females and twenty-five males) in this study. On magnetic resonance imaging scans of the tibial plateau and the proximal part of the tibial shaft of each lower limb, the distance XMU-MP-1 between the axis of

the tibial shaft and the center of the tibial plateau was measured and was defined as the offset of the tibial shaft from the tibial plateau at three resection levels: the first just distal to the subchondral bone of the medial tibial plateau, the second 5 mm distal to it, and the third 10 mm distal to it. The dimensions of the tibial plateau were measured as well.

Results: At the first, second, and third resection levels, the mean tibial shaft offsets (and standard deviations) from the center of the tibial plateau were, respectively, 7.23 +/- 2.44 mm (3.40 +/- 1.94 mm of mediolateral offset and

6.22 +/- 2.05 mm of anteroposterior offset), 6.33 +/- 2.26 mm (3.14 MI-503 order +/- 2.04 mm of mediolateral offset and 5.24 +/- 1.96 mm of anteroposterior offset), and 4.75 +/- 2.07 mm (2.68 +/- 1.91 mm of mediolateral offset and 3.46 +/- 2.03 mm of anteroposterior offset). At each resection level, the mean offset in the male group was significantly larger than that in the female group.

Conclusions: There is a large variation in the offset of the tibial shaft from the tibial plateau in Chinese people. The axis of the tibial shaft is located anterolateral to the center of the tibial plateau in this population.”
“There is a lack of data regarding potential exposure of gametes to bisphenol A during IVF. Detectable concentrations of bisphenol A were not found in commonly used IVF plastic culture dishes, suction tubing or growth media under normal-use conditions. RBMOnline (c) 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“It remains controversial whether anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentration is influenced by hormonal contraception. This study quantified the effect of hormonal contraception on both endocrine and sonographic ovarian reserve markers in 228 users and 504 non-users of hormonal contraception.

This paper outlines the evidence for efficacy from randomised

This paper outlines the evidence for efficacy from randomised BMS-754807 cost trials for the most commonly used CRC screening

tests to reduce CRC incidence and mortality in the average-risk population.

Four randomised trials have investigated the effect of guaiac-based fecal occult blood screening on CRC mortality, with a combined CRC mortality risk reduction of 15-17% in an intention-to-screen analysis, and 25% for those people who attended screening. Flexible sigmoidoscopy screening has been evaluated in three randomised trials. The observed reduction in CRC incidence varied between 23 and 80%, and between 27 and 67% for CRC mortality, respectively (intention-to-screen analyses) in the trials with long follow-up time. No randomised trials exist in selleck screening library other CRC screening tools, included colonoscopy screening.

FOBT and flexible sigmoidoscopy are the two CRC screening methods which have been tested in randomised trials and shown to reduce CRC mortality. These tests can be recommended for CRC screening. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“For high efficiency silicon solar cells, the

rear surface passivation by a dielectric layer has significant advantages compared to the standard fully covered Al back-contact structure. In this work the rear contact formation of the passivated emitter and rear cell device structure is analyzed. Contrary to expected views, we found that the contact resistivity of fine screen printed Al fingers alloyed on narrow p-type Si areas depends VX770 on the geometry of the Al Si alloy formation below the contacts, and decreases by reducing the contact area, while the contact resistance remains constant. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses. At the same time, narrow Al-Si alloy formations increased the passivated area below the contacts, improving the optical properties of the rear side, reducing the short-circuit

current and open-circuit voltage losses. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the Al-Si alloy geometry is performed, in order to understand its influence on the contact resistivity. The analysis presented in this article has application in Al Si alloying processes and advanced solar cells concepts, like back-contact and rear passivated solar cells. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3437070]“
“The mechanisms by which adaptive phenotypes spread within an evolving population after their emergence are understood fairly well. Much less is known about the factors that influence the evolutionary accessibility of such phenotypes, a pre-requisite for their emergence in a population. Here, we investigate the influence of environmental quality on the accessibility of adaptive phenotypes of Escherichia coli’s central metabolic network.

“We investigated parallel arrays of superconducting Nb/AlO

“We investigated parallel arrays of superconducting Nb/AlO(x)/Nb tunnel junctions nonevenly distributed in a superconducting Nb/SiO/Nb microstrip transmission line. Such devices are discretized Josephson transmission lines (DJTLs) in which, from theory, magnetic flux quanta (“”fluxons”") can travel as solitonic waves when a dc current bias and a dc magnetic field are applied. We observed a reproducible series of resonant branches in each device’s I-V curve, at Josephson submillimeter-wave

frequencies (from 240 to 720 GHz) matching the resonances predicted using a transmission line analysis, where the loading of the N=5 junctions is fully taken into account. The nonperiodic distribution was optimized to provide rf matching over GF120918 a large bandwidth (450-650 GHz typically), implying that the plasma resonance of junctions is inductively tuned out over a similar band by the array. A confirmation of this comes from the observation, at frequencies higher than the untuned junctions plasma frequency, of several Josephson phenomena reported

in this article: Fiske-like resonances, phase-locking of the n=3 resonance to an external 600 GHz microwave source, rf-induced zero crossing, and resonances at fractional harmonics of the rf signal. These experimental results are all compatible with a fluxon-based resonances interpretation, as in the extensively studied long Josephson junctions yet at higher frequencies. As reported elsewhere, we could detect similar to 500 GHz microwave radiation emitted by our devices in the n=1 and n=3 modes. In light

of these unique properties, we propose nonuniform DJTLs as a promising type of Josephson device for submillimeter-wave oscillators and fast fluxon-based electronics.”
“A copolymer, poly(L-lactide)-g-poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PLLA-g-PVP) was prepared with poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and N-vinyl pyrrolidone in the presence of methanol as a solvent by gamma-ray irradiation. The structure of PLLA-g-PVP was characterized by (1)H-NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The PLLA-g-PVP graft ratio calculated by the percentage increase in weight increased with the increase of absorbed dose, and the percentage JQ1 crystallinity of PLLA-g-PVP decreased with increasing graft ratio. The introduction of the poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) chain into PLLA resulted in a decrease in the contact angle of PLLA-g-PVP with increasing graft ratio. In vitro degradation testing showed that PLLA-g-PVP had a higher degradation rate both in the weight-loss test and molecular weight measurement because of a lower crystalline percentage and higher hydrophilicity compared to PLLA. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 3152-3157,2009″
“Objective To determine an effective mode of therapy of ingrown nail using two different methods.

05), but a minimal effect on the breast cancer scale (total effec

05), but a minimal effect on the breast cancer scale (total effect = 0.036, P > 0.05).

Conclusions: The inter-relationships among the three variables give us a better understanding of breast cancer patients’ experience and provide guidance for developing

effective strategies to improve their HRQoL and relieving unpleasant symptoms. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different final irrigating solutions on dentin permeability and smear layer removal using the same specimens and relate the results obtained.

Study design. Forty anterior human teeth were instrumented and divided into 4 groups (n = 10) at the final rinse step, according this website to the AZD4547 datasheet irrigant used: G I (control) – 1% NaOCl; G II – 17% EDTA; G III – 17% EDTAT; and G IV – Biopure MTAD. The canals were filled with 0.5% methylene blue and maintained in bottles for 48 hours. The roots were transversally split in coronal, middle, and apical fragments. The specimens were

photographed and analyzed regarding dye penetration. The fragments were then axially split and prepared for SEM. The photomicrographs were analyzed and qualified by scores.

Results. Only the EDTA-T group exhibited statistical difference in which the apical third had less dentin permeability (P < .05). When a decalcifying agent was used, smear layer was removed, which did not happen in the NaOCl group. Regarding smear layer removal, differences were found only in the EDTA group in which the apical third presented more smear layer (P < .05). No correlation was found for both studies (r = 0.4207).

Conclusions. There was not an even relationship between the results from both studies, which inferes that higher or lower dentinal permeability does not necessarily correspond to a higher or lower amount of smear layer. The analysis of dentin permeability and smear layer removal was shown to be a feasible procedure using the same specimens. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 107: e47-e51)”
“We present eight-band k . p calculations of the electronic and polarization properties of Z-DEVD-FMK manufacturer columnar

InzGa1-zAs quantum dots (CQD) with high aspect ratio embedded in an InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum well. Our model accounts for the linear strain effects, linear piezoelectricity, and spin-orbit interaction. We calculate the relative intensities of transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) linear polarized light emitted from the edge of the semiconductor wafer as a function of the two main factors affecting the heavy hole-light hole valence band mixing and hence, the polarization dependent selection rules for the optical transitions, namely, (i) the composition contrast z/x between the dot material and the surrounding well and (ii) the dot aspect ratio. The numerical results show that the former is the main driving parameter for tuning the polarization properties.

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Environ Toxicol 26: 395-402, 201

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 26: 395-402, 2011.”
“Objective: While the physical and psychosocial benefits of participating in physical activity (PA) during and following breast cancer treatment are well understood, less is known about rates and uptake of PA following diagnosis. This paper explores the levels and patterns of PA among women recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the factors associated with change in activity levels.

Methods: Using a population-based recruitment approach, PA levels of 287 breast cancer patients were assessed at 6, 12 and 18 months post-diagnosis using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and then converted to MET (metabolic

equivalent task)-hours/week. Regression analyses were used to explore the correlates associated with change between SB273005 6 and 18 months post-diagnosis.

Results: Although more than 80% of women participated in PA at each testing phases, more than 50% were considered insufficiently active

or sedentary according to national recommendations and less than one-third reported engagement in vigorous or strength activities. Mean change in total MET-hours/week between 6 and 18 months post-diagnosis was minor (mean = 0.10, median = 0.0), however individual changes were substantial (ranging from – 100 to + 174 MET-hours/week). Results are more encouraging Selleckchem Entinostat for the lower threshold of 3 + MET-hours/week, which may be most relevant specifically for breast cancer outcomes.

Conclusions: Since the majority of women report insufficient levels of PA, there is a clear need for exercise interventions during and following breast cancer treatment. Few ARS-1620 molecular weight characteristics predict declines or improvements in PA levels, hence for optimal benefit, interventions should target the entire breast cancer population. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare, transient complication of pregnancy typically characterized by polyuria and polydipsia that may lead to mild electrolyte abnormalities. More severe sequelae of gestational

diabetes insipidus are uncommon.

CASE: We present a case of a 25-year-old woman at 23 weeks of gestation in a dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy who developed severe symptomatic gestational diabetes insipidus complicated by rhabdomyolysis and death of both fetuses.

CONCLUSION: Maternal rhabdomyolysis caused by gestational diabetes insipidus is extremely rare. Early recognition and treatment of gestational diabetes insipidus is necessary to prevent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.”
“Hydroponics experiments were conducted to underpin the nature of interactions between Zn, an essential micronutrient and Pb, a nonessential element on plant growth and root morphology, as well as antioxidant adaptation in mined ecotype (ME) and nonmined ecotype (NME) of Elsholtzia argyi. Plants were exposed to 50 mu M Pb having normal Zn (0.