Retrospective radiographic and clinical study


Retrospective radiographic and clinical study.

Objective. To examine the long-term outcome of selective thoracic fusion (STF) performed for lumbar “”C”" modifier curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Summary of Background Data. The efficacy

of STF in lumbar “”C”" false double major curves is controversial. We examined the 5- to 24-year outcomes of patients with “”C”" lumbar curves who underwent STF at a single institution to determine which factors help predict successful outcome.

Methods. Thirty-two patients (age, 14.8 +/- 2.0 years) with a lumbar “”C”" modifier underwent primary STF and had minimum 5-year follow-up (mean, 6.8 years). All patients were fused distally to either T12 or L1. At latest follow-up, 18 were considered successful (group S), 2 required reoperation to accommodate worsening deformity (group R), and 12 were considered marginal outcomes (group M), as defined by >3 cm coronal imbalance (n = 5), >5 Ricolinostat mm worsening of lumbar apical vertebra translation compared with preoperative (n = 4), >1 Nash-Moe grade worsening of lumbar apical vertebra rotation (n = 1), >10 degrees thoracolumbar junction kyphosis which was at least 5 degrees worse than preoperative (n = 5), and lumbar Cobb angle >5 degrees worse than preoperative (n = 2). Clinical outcomes were determined by Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-30 at final follow-up.


Of the multiple factors considered, 2-month postoperative standing GSK2126458 inhibitor lumbar sagittal alignment was most predictive for long-term outcome (P < 0.019 by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA).

Satisfactory outcomes had statistically significantly greater T12-S1 lordosis than those that were marginal (64.8 degrees (group S) vs. 52.0 degrees (group M); P = 0.014) or required reoperation (64.8 selleck chemicals degrees [group S] vs. 38.0 degrees [group R]; P < 0.001). Traditionally considered variables such as apical vertebra rotation, apical vertebra translation, Cobb angle magnitudes, coronal and sagittal balance, and their respective thoracic-to-lumbar ratios were not independently significant.

Conclusion. Selective thoracic fusions performed for lumbar “”C”" modifier scoliotic deformities generally have excellent long-term radiographic and SRS-30 outcomes at 5- to 24-year follow-up. Care should be taken to ensure that overcorrection of the thoracic curve is not performed beyond the ability of the lumbar curve to compensate. Furthermore, consideration of selective thoracic fusion should not be ruled out simply because the patient may have a somewhat stiff lumbar curve based on side-bending radiographs.”
“Gorham-Stout disease, or massive osteolysis, is an extremely rare idiopathic condition characterized by spontaneous, localized relentless resorption of one or several contiguous bones. There is no known successful treatment. Autologous bone graft also resorbs. It is a condition with difficult diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. We report an extreme case of massive osteolysis of the maxillofacial complex.

Furthermore they will incorporate patient-specific anatomical mod

Furthermore they will incorporate patient-specific anatomical models obtained from patient imaging

and uploaded onto the simulator to ensure face reliability and validity assurance. Training in a clean, safe environment with proximate feedback and performance analysis will help accelerate the learning curve and therefore improve patients’ safety and outcomes in order to maximize the benefits of innovative access procedures such as NOTES. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: The focus of this paper is the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) from caffeic acid and phenyl ethanol in a continuous packed-bed bioreactor. Immobilized Novozym (R) 435 (from Candida antarctica) is used as the catalyst. A three-level-three-factor Box-Behnken learn more design and a response surface methodology (RSM) are employed to evaluate the effects of temperature, flow rate, and ultrasonic power on the percentage molar conversion of CAPE.

RESULTS: Based on ridge max analysis, it is concluded that the optimum condition for synthesis is reaction temperature 72.66 degrees C, flow rate 0.046 mL min(-1), and ultrasonic

power 1.64 W cm(-2). The expected molar conversion value is 97.84%. An experiment performed under these optimal conditions resulted in a molar conversion of 92.11 +/- 0.75%. The enzyme in the bioreactor was found to be selleck stable for at least 6 days.

CONCLUSIONS: The lipase-catalyzed synthesis of CAPE by an ultrasound-assisted packed-bed bioreactor uses mild reaction conditions. Enzymatic synthesis of CAPE is suitable for use in the nutraceutical and food production industries. (C) 2011 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Antenatal steroids (AS) have been shown to enhance fetal maturation in preterms and to improve outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of AS in premature severely intrauterine growth restricted infants. The electronic data of 149 inborn, single infants born 24 to 31 6/7 weeks of GA and with a BW <= 3rd percentile were reviewed. Infants

with congenital anomalies and syndromes were excluded. We compared the outcome of those who received 2 doses of AS (group A, 87 infants) with those who did not receive AS (group high throughput screening B, 62 infants). Sixty-eight infants in group A and 53 in group B were discharged home alive. AS did not improve the neonatal outcome, with the exception of a better cord pH and 5-min Apgar and we did not observe a significant difference in the Griffith’s test at 2 years of corrected age, although there was a trend to a higher incidence of severe global delay in the steroid group. In view of the potential cerebral and CVS risks associated with high circulating steroids, the indications for AS in such a population need to be re-evaluated.

Results: TCDD directly induced the growth of SNU790 and the expre

Results: TCDD directly induced the growth of SNU790 and the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin E, p21 and COX-2. Celecoxib suppressed the growth of SNU790 and the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. Celecoxib reduced the MMP-2 expression and the gelatinolytic activity, but those effects were decreased in the SNU790 by either pre-treatment with TCDD or co-treatment with TCDD and

celecoxib. Conclusions: Celocoxib effect is directly reduced depending on the exposure to TCDD. TCDD exposure should be considered in the treatment with Celecoxib.”
“Microwave irradiation of glycerol carbonate allows formation of glycidol, which readily polymerizes to form polyglycerol under mild conditions comparatively to the classical polyetherification

reaction involving high temperature and basic conditions. Analysis of the crude reactional mixture indicated the presence of low-molecular weight oligomers constituted mainly of di, tri, and tetraglycerols with small quantities of higher molecular weights oligomers. Molecular size distribution was relatively similar to that of polyglycerols obtained under basic condition, even if these latter contained slightly higher amounts of high-molecular weight oligomers. Structure of oligomers differs slightly according to the conditions of polymerization, and polyglycerols are obtained under microwave activation containing higher contents of cyclic isomers, whereas polyglycerols obtained under basic conditions contain more ramified isomers. (C) 2010 Wiley

Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 2354-2360, 2011″
“Metastatic spinal S63845 solubility dmso cord compression is a frequent medical emergency, and the most common treatment offered is radiotherapy. The routine treatment prescription for spinal cord compression in the UK is 20 Gy in five daily fractions delivered over 1 week. Here, we evaluate the evidence base for the radiotherapy dose for spinal cord compression. Evidence from the four prospective studies conducted so far and retrospective studies does not support a uniform dose of 20 Gy for all patients with spinal cord compression. Available evidence suggests that selleck kinase inhibitor the radiotherapy dose should be tailored to the individual patient, depending on the subtype of the tumour, the extent of metastatic disease and expected survival. A risk stratification for the optimum dose prescription for patients with spinal cord compression is recommended. (C) 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Pathologic examination is a very important diagnostic procedure. It is the most important method to decide the therapeutic plan and to predict the prognosis of cancer patients. The Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) is a schema used to determine how much money medical providers should be paid. In Korea, a modified RBRVS has been used since the year 2000.

Twelve patients with hepatic failure waiting for liver transplant

Twelve patients with hepatic failure waiting for liver transplantation, with indications to bilateral extraction, entered the split-mouth study. One post-extractive defect was treated with laser while the other was left without treatment. Specimens find more of soft

tissues were removed from around the tooth before extraction and after 7 days. Superpulsed laser irradiation prevented IL-1 beta increase and induced IL-6, IL-10, and collagen III increase at 7 days in comparison to their level before extraction, whereas the other parameters were unmodified. Moreover, the epithelial regeneration evidenced a positive result of laser therapy, and the patients reported less pain in the site treated with laser. In conclusion, laser therapy appears to be the

treatment of choice for patients due to its clinical efficacy, safety, good tolerance, and its ability to prevent inflammation.”
“Dry period and early post-partum management are decisive factors for fertility in lactating dairy cows. Previous studies have shown that decreased dry matter intake (DMI) and increased non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) negatively affect fertility and subsequent milk production. The traditional dry period decreases DMI prior to parturition, resulting in a decrease in energy intake. A negative energy balance increases NEFA concentration, and increased NEFA may impair the immune system, especially by decreasing neutrophil function prior to parturition. Earlier studies have shown that postpartum health disorders, including

retained placenta MI-503 ic50 and metritis, were correlated with periparturient neutrophil function. In addition, decreased DMI is also linked to a reduced body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows. These events in the periparturient period negatively affect fertility. Some manipulation, such as shortening the dry period, may be a solution to increased DMI in the periparturient period, preventing postpartum disorders and subsequent fertility issues. This article aims to explain the effects of shortening the dry period on reproduction selleck chemicals llc and early post-partum treatments to improve fertility. In addition, timed artificial insemination protocols will be discussed for use during the post-partum period to improve fertility in dairy cows.”
“Objective: The aim of this study was to obtain normative nasalance scores for adult and children subjects speaking Turkish language and obtain a reference for normality when nasality is evaluated.

Methods: Mean nasalance scores were obtained from 35 normal-speaking children aged 7 to 13 years, and 125 adults aged 18 to 69 years during the repetition of 3 nasalance passages that were categorized according to the amount of nasal consonants (oral, oronasal, and nasal passages).

These results lead us to suggest that this pathogen has considera

These results lead us to suggest that this pathogen has considerable evolutionary potential, which will enable it to adapt to and overcome management

strategies Selleck Proteasome inhibitor over time.”
“The advent of statins has revolutionised the treatment of patients with raised plasma cholesterol and increased cardiovascular risk. However, the beneficial effects of this class of drugs are far greater than would be expected from lowering of cholesterol alone, and they appear to offer cardiovascular protection at multiple levels, primarily as a result of their pleiotropic activity. Indeed, their favourable effects on the heart seem to be mediated in part through reduced prenylation and subsequent inhibition of small GTPases, particularly those of the Rho family. Such statin-mediated effects are manifested by reduced onset of heart failure and improvements in cardiac dysfunction and remodelling in heart failure patients. Experimental studies have

shown that statins mediate their effects on the two major resident cell types of the heart-cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts-and thus facilitate improvement of adverse remodelling of ischaemic or non-ischaemic aetiology. This review examines evidence for the cellular effects of statins in the heart, and discusses the underlying molecular mechanisms at the level of the cardiomyocyte (hypertrophy, cell death and contractile function) and the cardiac fibroblast (differentiation, proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix synthesis). The prospects for future therapies and ongoing clinical trials are also summarised.”
“The BIIB057 mouse benefits of valsartan find more (Val)/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination as initial treatment for hypertension were evaluated in a post

hoc analysis of an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The highest dose of Val/HCTZ combination (320/25 mg), component monotherapies (Val 320 mg, HCTZ 25 mg) and placebo were selected for this analysis (N=675, 52.1% men, 68.6% Caucasians, mean age 52.9 years, baseline blood pressure (BP) 150.6/99.1 mm Hg). As soon as 2 weeks after initiation of active therapy, greater BP control rates were observed with Val/HCTZ (320/25 mg) compared with Val (320 mg), HCTZ (25 mg) and placebo. Similar results were observed in subgroups of patients with stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension, as well as in diabetic patients. As baseline BP increased, the probability of achieving mean sitting systolic BP (<140 and <130 mm Hg) and mean sitting diastolic BP control (<90 and <80 mm Hg), determined using a logistic regression model, decreased with all treatments. However, at all levels of baseline BP, the probability of achieving BP control was greater with Val/HCTZ combination. The Val/HCTZ combination was well tolerated with overall incidence of adverse events similar to that observed with monotherapy and placebo.

Subcutaneous sites also showed calcium deposition without necrosi

Subcutaneous sites also showed calcium deposition without necrosis as well as collagen nodules representing early scar tissue. Histological examination of platelet-rich plasma injection sites at six and twelve Dinaciclib weeks demonstrated a persistent but diminished inflammatory infiltrate. Focal areas of scar tissue were seen with fibroblasts, collagen formation, and neovascularity. All saline solution sites at all times

were nonreactive.

Conclusions: Platelet-rich plasma can initiate an inflammatory response in the absence of an inciting injury in normal soft tissue in rabbits.”
“In this paper, electron paramagnetic resonance, photoluminescence (PL) emission, and quantum mechanical calculations were used to observe and understand the structural order-disorder of CaTiO3, paying special attention AZD2014 to the role of oxygen vacancy. The PL phenomenon at room temperature of CaTiO3 is directly influenced by the presence of oxygen vacancies that yield structural order-disorder. These oxygen vacancies bonded at Ti and/or Ca induce new electronic states inside the band gap. Ordered and disordered CaTiO3 was obtained by the polymeric precursor method. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3190524]“
“Natriuretic peptide (NP) levels

(B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP] and N-terminal proBNP) are now widely used in clinical practice and cardiovascular research all over the world and have been incorporated into many cardiovascular guidelines for heart failure (HF). The roles of NP levels are evolving rapidly not only in diagnosis, therapy monitoring, and risk stratification of HF, but also in differential diagnosis of acute dyspnea, predicting death and rehospitalization in HF patients. NP assays have been applied in permanent cardiac pacing in recent years, whereas it is still not well known

how NP levels change and whether NP levels can predict HF in permanent cardiac pacing. Therefore, this article reviews the role of NP levels in permanent cardiac pacing, mainly including NP changes in different cardiac pacing modes and cardiac resynchronization therapy.

(PACE 2009; 32:794-799).”
“Background: The patient-related risk find more factors for periprosthetic joint infection and postoperative mortality in elderly patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the specific patient comorbidities that are associated with an increased risk of periprosthetic joint infection and of ninety-day postoperative mortality in U.S. Medicare patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.

Methods: The Medicare 5% sample claims database was used to calculate the relative risk of periprosthetic joint infection and of ninety-day postoperative mortality as a function of preexisting comorbidities in 40,919 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty between 1998 and 2007.

Materials and Methods: This prospective single-center HIPAA-compl

Materials and Methods: This prospective single-center HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Forty-eight patients (31 men, 17 women; age range, 35-77 years) with 60 malignant hypervascular liver tumors (mean diameter, 20.1 mm +/-

16.4 [standard deviation]) were enrolled. Pathologic proof of focal lesions was obtained with histopathologic analysis for 33 nodules and imaging follow-up after a minimum of 12 months for 27 nodules. Patients underwent dual-energy 64-section multi-detector row CT. By using vendor-specific software, two imaging DZNeP inhibitor protocols-140 kVp and 385 mA (protocol A) and 80 kVp and 675 mA (protocol B)-were compared during the late hepatic arterial phase of contrast enhancement. Paired t tests were used to compare tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for each lesion, mean image noise, and effective dose between the two data sets. Three readers qualitatively

assessed the two data sets in a blinded and independent fashion. Lesion detection and characterization and reader confidence were recorded, as well as readers’ subjective evaluations of image quality. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney statistical analysis was performed on this assessment.

Results: SBE-β-CD ic50 Image noise increased from 5.7 to 11.4 HU as the tube voltage this website decreased from 140 to 80 kVp (P < .0001), resulting in a significantly lower image quality score (4.0 vs 3.0, respectively) with protocol B according to all readers (P < .001). At the same time, protocol B yielded significantly higher CNR (8.2 vs 6.4) and lesion conspicuity scores (4.6 vs 4.1) than protocol A, along with a lower effective dose (5.1 vs 17.5 mSv) (P < .001 for all).

Conclusion: By substantially increasing the tumor-to-liver CNR, a low tube voltage, high tube current CT technique improves the conspicuity of malignant hypervascular liver tumors during the late hepatic arterial phase while significantly reducing

patient radiation dose. (C) RSNA, 2009″
“The atomic and electronic properties of black phosphorus (BP), which has been recently shown to have potential application as anode material for lithium ion batteries, are studied via ab initio calculations. The calculations reveal that the interlayer interaction in BP is Van der Waals Keesom force, which is critical to the formation of the layered structure. Interestingly, we also found that the small band gap of bulk BP (0.19 eV) when compared with that of single layer BP (0.75 eV) is partly because of the interlayer Van der Waals interaction in BP. The change in a materials band structure because of Van der Waals interaction is rarely reported in literature. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

6%) patients developed recurrent back pain, 20 (11 8%) recurrent

6%) patients developed recurrent back pain, 20 (11.8%) recurrent leg pain, and 5 (3%) recurrent synovial cysts. Patients undergoing laminectomy had a significantly increased cyst recurrence incidence compared to fusion groups via log-rank test (P = 0.042), and this risk was decreased to baseline with instrumented fusion on re-operation. Laminectomy

was also associated with the highest increased risk of recurrent back pain in both log-rank test (P = 0.018) and proportional hazards regression (HR): 1.64 (1.00-3.45), P = 0.05. Instrumented fusion had the lowest risk for back VS-6063 manufacturer pain recurrence.

Conclusion. Hemilaminectomy or laminectomy remains one of the mainstay surgical treatments for symptomatic intraspinal selleck synovial cysts. Our experience shows that the majority of patients undergoing decompression/excision of synovial cysts will have immediate improvement in back and leg pain. However, within 2 years, patients receiving hemilaminectomy or laminectomy alone have an increased incidence of back pain and cyst recurrence. Decompression with instrumented fusion appears to be associated with the lowest incidences of cyst recurrence or back pain.”
“In the language of mathematics, one needs minimally

two interacting variables (two dimensions) to describe repeatable periodic behaviour, and in the language of density dependence, one needs delayed, not immediate, density dependence to produce cyclicity. Neither language specifies the causal mechanism. There are two major potential mechanisms: exogenous mechanisms involving species interactions as in predator-prey or host-parasite, and endogenous mechanisms such as maternal effects where population growth results from the cross-generational transmission of individual quality. The species Fludarabine inhibitor interactions view stemming from a major observation of Elton and a simultaneous independent theory by Lotka and Volterra is currently dominant. Most ecologists, when faced with cyclic phenomena, automatically look for an interacting species one step below or above in a food chain in order to find an explanation. Maternal effects hypothesis, verbally suggested in the 1950s, had only found its theoretical implementation

in the 1990s. In a relatively short time, the degree of acceptance of this view grew to the level of a ‘minority opinion’ as evidenced by the widely used textbook of Begon et al. This short review attempts to describe the arguments for and against this internal two-dimensional approach.”
“Background: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the value of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ((18)FDG PET-CT) for the detection of primary sites in patients with cervical nodal metastases of unknown origin.

Methods: Studies were systematically searched for relevant PET-CT original articles in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We calculated the primary tumor detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for (18)FDG PET-CT.

The HeartNet (R) cardiac restraint device (Paracor Medical Inc ,

The HeartNet (R) cardiac restraint device (Paracor Medical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) may reduce LV remodeling and improve functional capacity, quality of life, and outcomes in HF patients. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the HeartNet Ventricular Support System in HF patients receiving optimal medical therapy.

Methods and Results: Prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial in patients with symptomatic HF and LV ejection fraction

on optimal medical and device therapy. The primary efficacy end points were changes in peak VO2, 6-minute walk (6MW) distance, and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLWHF) quality of life score at 6 months. The primary safety end point was all-cause mortality at 12 months. Because the planned adaptive interim analysis of the first 122 subjects with a completed 6-month follow-up indicated futility to reach the

peak VO2 end point, trial enrollment was suspended. Hence, the results on the 96 Prexasertib treatment and 114 control subjects are reported. Groups were similar at baseline. At 6 months, responder frequency for a prespecified improvement was similar between groups for peak VO2 (P = .502) and MLWHF score (P = .184) but borderline higher for improvement in 6MW distance in the treatment compared with the control group (33 [38%] vs. 25 [25%]; Tariquidar cost P = .044). At 6 months, the treatment group had a significantly greater improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) (P < .001) and decrease in LV mass (P = .032), LV end-diastolic diameter (P = .015), LV end-systolic diameter (P = .032), and LV end-diastolic volume (P = .031) as compared with controls. At 12 months, all-cause mortality and responder rates were similar in the 2 groups. Success rate for the HeartNet implantation was 99%.


Enrollment in the trial was stopped because an interim analysis showed futility of reaching the peak VO2 end point. However, because of the device safety and favorable signals for LV remodeling and quality of life, further investigation of this device is warranted. (J Cardiac Fail 2012;18:446-458)”
“Transient microwave reflectance (TMWR) has been used to investigate the n(+)-n-p HgCdTe structures formed by B+ implantation and moderate annealing. Vacancy-doped p-type bulk HgCdTe (x similar to 0.285) crystals were used learn more in this work. 130 keV B+ ions were implanted at a dose of 1×10(14) cm(-2). Samples were successively thinned through etching in 0.5% Br-2 in CH3OH solutions with a standardized procedure for differential Hall/resistivity measurements. At every differential etch step, the TMWR signal was also recorded and theoretically analyzed for estimating bulk lifetime and surface recombination velocity. Results for as-implanted as well as moderately annealed samples have been presented. The study indicated the usefulness of TMWR analysis in evaluating implant anneal process for the formation of n(+)-n-p HgCdTe structures for photodetector fabrication.

At 205 degrees C, the glass fiber reinforced PPS


At 205 degrees C, the glass fiber reinforced PPS

composites can still keep better mechanical properties. When the fiber content ranges from 0 to 50%, the mechanical properties increase with increasing the fiber contents at different temperatures, except the notched Izod impact strength do not further increase at 145 and 205 degrees C with raising the fiber content from 40 to 50%. Thermal treatment could improve the mechanical properties Anlotinib of the composites at higher serving temperature. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 2019-2027, 2010″
“Study Design. Validation of a translated, culturally adapted questionnaire.

Objective. We developed a Korean version of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (CPCI-42) by performing a cross-cultural adaptation, and evaluated its reliability and validity.

Summary of Background Data. The CPCI is widely used and validated instruments for measuring coping strategies in chronic pain. However, no validated and culturally adapted version was available in Asian countries.

Methods. We assessed 142 patients with chronic low back pain using the CPCI-42 and measures of physical disability,

pain, and quality of life.

Results for 93 of the 142 patients exhibited test-retest reliability. The interval time of collecting retest data varied from 2 weeks to 1 month. Criterion validity was evaluated using correlations between the CPCI-42 and the Elacridar ic50 Oswestry Disability Index, the Brief Pain Inventory, and the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (version 2.0). Construct validity was computed using exploratory factor analysis. Results. The Korean version of the CPCI-42 had a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.70) with the exception of results for task persistence and relaxation. Illness-focused coping (guarding, resting, asking for assistance) and other-focused coping (seeking social support) were most significantly correlated with Oswestry Disability Index, Brief Pain Inventory, and Short Form 36-item Health Survey, respectively. Outcomes for task persistence

GF120918 supplier were contrary to other subscales in wellness-focused coping. Construct validity by factor analysis produced similar results to the original CPCI subscale. However, several factors showed cross-loading in 8 factor solutions.

Conclusion. Despite linguistic and cultural differences, the Korean version of the CPCI-42 is overall a meaningful tool, and produces results sufficiently similar to the original CPCI-42.”
“Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the effectiveness and tolerability of rufinamide in a heterogeneous group of patients with refractory epilepsies in Europe, immediately after the drug became available as an orphan drug for the adjunctive treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS).

Methods: This observational Study was conducted as a collection of retrospective data from multiple centers in Germany and Austria. Clinical course in patients treated with rufinamide was documented.