3 mEq/L, chloride Selleck AZD4547 was 102 mmol/L, calcium was 9.6 mg/dL, and phosphate was 3.6 mg/dL. In addition, serum urea was 27 mg/dL, serum creatinine was 0.7 mg/dL, total cholesterol was 280 mg/dL, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was 139 IU/L, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin
D was 59.7 ng/mL, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 28.5 μg/L. In this study, we investigated the bone histology of a woman with AN-related severe osteoporosis. Patients with AN have been considered to develop osteoporosis based upon a decrease of bone mineral density, but the specific bone histological picture of AN has not been reported before. There have been two reports of suggestion of osteomalacia associated with AN  and . On these two reports, osteomalacia was diagnosed clinically because of the elevation of alkaline phosphatase and a very low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, but bone histology was not investigated. In our patient, cancellous bone was decreased markedly and replaced by adipose tissue. There have been reports of bone marrow changes in patients with AN. Abella et al. found an increase of bone marrow fat due Selleckchem EPZ015666 to an increase
in adipocyte diameter in patients with AN. They emphasized that this change may be reversible after reestablishment of adequate nutritional intake . The relation between AN and renal dysfunction was addressed by Takakura et al., who examined the factors with an influence on renal dysfunction . They found that a low serum potassium, the duration of AN, and the duration of laxative abuse had a close relation with renal dysfunction. Bock CYTH4 et al. reported that patients with malnutrition, including those with AN, may show deterioration of renal function due to hypokalemia . In our patient, the kidneys showed the histological picture of chronic abacterial interstitial nephritis characterized by diffuse atrophy with tubular epithelial flattening and vacuolation (cyst formation). Although the plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration
were elevated, her blood pressure was normal or low. Bouquegneau et al. summarized renal manifestation of patients with AN. Hypokalemia is one of the most prevalent and dangerous factor . Chronic potassium depletion causes hypokalemic nephropathy defined by characteristic vacuolar lesions (cyst formation) in epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, as well as hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus associated with chronic hyper-reninemic state. Hypokalemia induces an increase in renal ammonium production and accumulation in the interstitium. The associated intracellular acidosis could damage tubular cells, and resulting in cyst formation. Suga et al. reported that hypokalemia might induce renal injury via a mechanism associated with alterations of vasoactive mediators that promote renal vasoconstriction and cause ischemic damage .