305 Routine monitoring of conventional liver tests and blood counts and amylase are performed at 4 to 6 week intervals. The decision to terminate therapy in children is based on laboratory evidence of prolonged
inactivity, and it is a consideration in only 20%-30% of patients.361 After 2-3 years of treatment, drug withdrawal is considered in children if liver function tests and IgG are repeatedly normal, and autoantibodies negative Napabucasin price or ≤ 1:20, for at least 1 year on low-dose corticosteroids. At that time, a liver biopsy examination should be performed and therapy withdrawn only if there is no histological evidence of inflammation. Relapse after drug withdrawal occurs in 60%-80% of children, and parents and patients must be informed that the probability of retreatment is high.35,36,279-281,283,305,358-361 Recommendations: 25. Improvements in the serum AST or ALT level, total bilirubin concentration, and γ-globulin or IgG level should
be monitored at 3-6 month intervals click here during treatment. (Class IIa, Level C) 26. Treatment should be continued until normal serum AST or ALT level, total bilirubin concentration, γ-globulin or IgG level, and normal liver histology not exhibiting inflammatory activity is achieved. (Table9). (Class IIa, Level C) 27. Patients should experience a minimum duration of biochemical remission before immunosuppression is terminated after at least 24 months of therapy. (Class II a, Level C) 28. Worsening symptoms, laboratory tests or histological features during conventional therapy (treatment failure) compel the institution of high dose prednisone alone (60 mg daily) or prednisone (30 mg daily) in combination with azathioprine (150 mg daily) (Table9). (Class IIa, Level C) 29. Clinical, laboratory and histological improvement which is insufficient to satisfy criteria for a treatment endpoint after continuous therapy for at least 36 months (incomplete response) should be treated with long-term prednisone Tideglusib therapy or azathioprine
maintenance in doses adjusted to ensure absence of symptoms and stable laboratory abnormalities (Table9). (Class IIa, Level C) 30. Intolerance to the medication (drug toxicity) should be managed by reducing the dose of the offending agent or discontinuing its use (Table9). (Class IIa, Level C) Relapse connotes recrudescence of disease activity after induction of remission and termination of therapy.345,347,348,362 It is characterized by an increase in the serum AST level to more than three-fold the ULN and/or increase in the serum γ-globulin level to more than 2 g/dL.349 Laboratory changes of this degree are invariably associated with the re-appearance of interface hepatitis in the liver tissue, and they preclude the need for a liver biopsy examination to document relapse.349 Progression to cirrhosis (38% versus 4%, P = 0.004) and death from liver failure or requirement for liver transplantation (20% versus 0%, P = 0.