4 Together, insemination, trophoblast shedding, and fetal microchimerism lead to a robust, antigen-specific tolerance in maternal T cells to fetal products that ensures unperturbed progression of pregnancy and delivery of a healthy newborn. Persistence of this tolerance is furthermore needed during pregnancies faced with infection to avoid antigen-specific immunity to the fetus. Much research has focused on mechanisms by which the fetus and placenta establish tolerance in the maternal immune system, including non-specific suppression of activated T cells by cell surface-associated and soluble products produced locally at the maternal–fetal
interface. Increasing understanding of the properties of T cells that tolerate specific fetal antigens
is also being gained, facilitated by the use of animal models that enable tracking of maternal Talazoparib ic50 lymphocytes targeted to defined fetal antigens. Although tolerance to fetal antigens is very robust, little is known about the mechanisms that establish this tolerance. Recent gains have indicated an Osimertinib research buy important role for members of the B7 family of immunomodulators. The response of T cells to their cognate antigens is governed principally by two distinct molecular signals that are provided to T cells upon their interaction with antigen presenting cells (APCs). The first signal (signal 1) results from ligation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) by antigen associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. A costimulatory signal (signal 2) occurs through the CD28 molecule, which is recruited to the immunological synapse following TCR ligation and is provided by B7-1 or B7-2. Like the MHC, the B7 proteins are expressed by APCs. The costimulatory signal serves to induce T-cell production of interleukin (IL) -2, drive their proliferation, and protect them from apoptosis and anergy. IL-2 acts in an autocrine/paracrine fashion on the T cells and is obligatory for their survival and differentiation into effector
cells. Without the costimulatory signal, signal 1 from the TCR by itself induces T cells to become tolerant to their cognate antigen instead of Methocarbamol activated.5–7 Both the TCR and CD28 are constitutively expressed on most naïve T cells, such that the T cell is ready to respond to antigen as presented by an MHC-expressing APC. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a second, inhibitory receptor of the B7-1/-2 ligands, and its surface expression is upregulated on T cells following their activation. The precise mechanism of action of CTLA-4 is not completely understood, but because its affinity for B7-1/-2 is higher than that of CD28, it is thought to control the T-cell response by competing for binding and blocking the costimulatory signal.