5% to 20% [23–25] All the MRSA isolates obtained from Maiduguri

5% to 20% [23–25]. All the MRSA isolates obtained from Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria) had the same spa type (t037) and MLST profile (ST241), identical to isolates from the same region that had been investigated

in a previous study [24]. Another study this website [25] also reported that the clone was identified in a hospital in Ibadan (South-Western Nigeria). ST241 is a single locus variant (slv) of the ST239 clone, which is click here prevalent in South East Asia and has also been reported from Europe, the Americas [41], and several countries in Africa [6, 42–44]. The multi-resistant nature of this MRSA clone could be explained by the presence of several resistance genes in the SCCmec cassette and it was recently shown to have spread across several continents since the 1960s [41]. MRSA ST239 demonstrating low level resistance to glycopeptides have been reported recently in Russia [45] and New Zealand [46]. In contrast, in South-Western Nigeria, we identified more diversity among the MRSA isolates.

In three different hospitals in this region, we observed several different clones of MRSA that can be distinguished on the basis of MLST, SCCmec typing and spa typing, selleckchem and displayed distinct antimicrobial resistance profiles (Table 2). Conclusions This study showed that the combination of susceptibility testing and various molecular methods provided useful information on the antibiotic resistance and molecular

diversity of S. aureus in Nigeria. Although the number of S. aureus isolates available for our investigation and epidemiological information was limited, the high proportion of PVL-positive MSSA observed in this study indicate that adequate measures are needed to curtail the spread and establishment of MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA clones in Nigerian health care institutions. Methods Isolation and identification of S. Nitroxoline aureus isolates In this study, a total of 68 non-duplicate consecutive S. aureus isolates (60 – clinical isolates; 8 – nasal isolates; one isolate per sample per individual) obtained between January and April 2009 were characterized. The clinical isolates were obtained from samples processed in the microbiology laboratories of referral health care institutions in Ile-Ife, Ibadan and Lagos (South-West Nigeria), and Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria), each of which are 500-bed facilities providing medical care to about one million people. The clinical isolates were cultured from 30 males (median age: 31 years, range: 1 year-70 years), 21 females (median age: 36 years, range: 1 week-63 years) and 9 unknown gender. In addition, nasal isolates were obtained from apparently healthy male undergraduate students in Ile-Ife. The origin and characteristics of each isolate is stated in Tables 2 and 3. The isolates were cultured on sheep blood agar and phenotypic identification of S.

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