7 and 8.4, Figure 6B and C) had decreased in amounts in the presence of the fungus. As detailed before, the macrolide antibiotics are active against yeasts, molds and filamentous fungi, and can cause membrane distortions and Pitavastatin datasheet leakage of K . The decline in amounts indicates that the fungus also responds to the Streptomyces, possibly by taking up these antibiotics which then affect fungal
metabolism. On the other hand, the fungus does not release many compounds into the agar, at least not such ones with low polarity which Ruboxistaurin nmr can be identified by reverse phase HPLC. Figure 6 HPLC analysis of agar extracts obtained from single and dual cultures in Petri dishes. The eluate was monitored at 210 and 310 nm. A) Neofusicoccum parvum, B) bacterial isolate M5, C) co-culture of bacterium and fungus. Peaks labelled with retention times of 7.7 and 8.4 min represent tetraene-polyene MRT67307 solubility dmso macrolides of the nystatin-type, those with an asterix indicate agar constituents. In recent studies we could show that certain streptomycete isolates can completely abolish disease development caused by the infection of spruce seedlings with the root pathogenic fungi Armillaria spec., and Heterobasidion spec. [38, 39]. This effect could be attributed to an antibiotic, isolated from the streptomycete . The present study confirms the biocontrol function of many soil bacteria, and
especially of streptomycetes. Exoribonuclease It also shows that combinations of exudates are obviously more relevant than the application of single compounds. Although the investigation of effector combinations is only a very little step towards
the understanding of microbe interactions in the complex rhizosphere. In ongoing experiments we will try to find out whether the co-culture effects can be simulated by the addition of these compounds (as far as available), and whether the infection of Araucaria seedlings by the fungus can be prevented by co-culture with the respective streoptomycete isolates. In addition, we have started to screen a range of streptomcete isolates obtained from Brazilian Araucaria angustifolia stands for their biocontrol function. For application, spores of efficient bacteria could then be added to A. angustifolia seeds to counteract N. parvum infection. Conclusions Streptomycetes from the rhizosphere of Araucariaceae produce exudates which can suppress the growth of pathogenic fungi in their seeds. The focus of this contribution is on the effect of bacteria from Australian sources on a Brazilian tree species (A. angustifolia). However, our most recent studies show that the potential biocontrol properties of Brazilian rhizosphere bacteria are very similar to those of Australian isolates. Thus, the bacterial impact is not restricted to the respective source of bacteria, or bacteria/species of Araucariaceae.