Administered to pre-diabetic animals at sufficient doses, rapamycin protects from diabetes [88,89], and
protection is sustained for up to 41 weeks after treatment cessation . However, treatment of diabetic mice is unable to restore normoglycaemia . For these same protocols, the virtual mouse recapitulates all the reported complexity, including dose-dependency, sustained effect and differential efficacy (Table 4). In another example TGF-β, a regulatory cytokine, has been shown to induce remission  while exendin-4, targeting β cells, was unable to restore normoglycaemia . Upon simulating these same experimental conditions, diabetes remission was observed when given TGF-β but not exendin-4 (Table 4). Similar to these examples, the virtual mouse responded to all external validation tests in a manner PD 332991 consistent with the majority response of real NOD mice, with the exception of a few anti-CD40L protocols (Table 4). The accurate recapitulation of multiple disease outcomes (five interventions, 21 of 24 protocols), following perturbations of distinct components of the biology and without further parameter adjustments,
suggests that this learn more virtual mouse can predict majority responses for many therapeutic strategies. The three discrepant predictions for anti-CD40L are discussed below. Published anti-CD40L studies indicated a complex set of responses among real NOD mice (Table 4). Overall, early but not late treatment protected real NOD mice from diabetes. This trend was recapitulated successfully in the virtual NOD mouse. However, the literature also included contradictory outcomes. First, laboratory treatment of 8- to 10-week-old
NOD mice with 200, 250 (two publications) or 400 µg anti-CD40L failed to protect the majority of mice from Amrubicin diabetes [92–94]; in direct contrast, treatment of 8-week-old NOD mice with 250 µg anti-CD40L protected all mice from diabetes . The protocols for anti-CD40L administration were similar across all five protocols and unlikely to account for the discrepant result. Unsurprisingly, the virtual NOD mouse was not protected, consistent with four of five results. In the second case, treatment of 3-week-old NOD mice with 100 µg or 250 µg anti-CD40L protected all treated mice from diabetes [93,96]; in contrast, treatment of 4-week-old NOD mice with approximately 400 or 500 µg reduced diabetes incidence modestly by less than 50% [92,97]. This dramatic shift in efficacy within the space of a week could reflect profound changes in the biological role of CD40L between 3 and 4 weeks, or an artificial emphasis based on interlaboratory variation in NOD mouse colonies, experimental reagents or methods. The latter seems particularly relevant, given the need to reconcile a completely efficacious low dose (100 µg) at 3 weeks and an ineffective higher dose (500 µg) at 4 weeks.