Any therapeutic manipulation aimed at improving viral control by

Any therapeutic manipulation aimed at improving viral control by reducing Blimp-1 expression has to avoid the point at which further reduction of Blimp-1 becomes harmful. D.T.F. & J.E.D.T. are funded by the

Wellcome Trust. The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. “
“Dipeptidyl peptidase 2 (DPP2) is an N-terminal dipeptidase, required for maintaining lymphocytes in a resting state. Mutant mice with T-cell-specific KPT-330 price knock-down (kd) of DPP2 (lck-DPP2 kd) were generated and analyzed for their phenotype. Normal thymocyte development and a modest increase in the proportions of peripheral T cells were observed in these mice compared with littermate controls. Interestingly, the peripheral T cells were hyperactive upon TCR stimulation in vitro, although they did not express any activation markers. Furthermore, CD3-crosslinking in the naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of lck-DPP2 kd mice resulted mainly in IL-17 production. Similarly, the mutant T cells secreted primarily

IL-17 after in vivo priming and in vitro antigen-specific restimulation. These data suggest that IL-17 production is the default program for T-cell differentiation in the buy Cobimetinib absence of DPP2. Thus, DPP2 seems to impose a threshold for quiescent T cells, preventing them from drifting into cell cycle. Dipeptidyl peptidase 2 (DPP2), a member of the serine dipeptidyl peptidase family, is an N-terminal protease that is ubiquitously transcribed in most tissues 1. It is localized in intracellular vesicles and is also secreted upon cellular activation 2. The DPP2 expression level is particularly high in quiescent T cells and fibroblasts, but is significantly downregulated upon activation of these cells 3. We previously demonstrated that DPP2 inhibition in vitro causes apoptosis in quiescent, but not activated, T cells 4 and fibroblasts due to a deregulated entry into the cell cycle 5. In order to analyze the role of DPP2 in quiescent T lymphocytes in vivo, we generated mutant mice where DPP2 is specifically downregulated

in the T-cell lineage. The majority of T cells in the body are in a resting state until encounter with a pathogen. In the presence of exogenous cytokines, TCR-stimulation of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells Tau-protein kinase leads to their maturation into various TH cell subsets and CTL effector cells. CD4+ cells can differentiate into the classical Th1 or Th2 subsets 6 or one of the more recently discovered lineages, Th17 7 and inducible Tregs 8. Differentiation into Th1 and Th2 cells depends on exogenous IL-12 and IL-4, respectively. In contrast, Th17 differentiation can be achieved with TGF-β and IL-6, two cytokines with opposing effects, while TGF-β alone induces iTregs 8. Ghoreschi et al. recently demonstrated that IL-1 and/or TGF-β in conjuction with IL-6, IL-21 and IL-23 promote Th17 development 9. Thus, the cytokine environment determines TH effector differentiation, a mechanism mediated through selective STAT proteins 10, 11.

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