Findings from two studies indicated that expected stigmatization Fosbretabulin research buy (Thompson et al.
2002) and the belief that an individual should not view herself as independent from family members (Hughes et al. 2003) are associated with lower genetic testing participation. This finding is inconsistent with the family related advantages of undergoing testing reported in Thompson et al.’s study (Thompson et al. 2002), further supporting the notion that perceived benefits do not necessarily translate to testing participation rates. In addition to the specific beliefs and expectancies about genetic counseling, the role of cultural values and the context of African American women should be considered. Hughes et al. (Hughes et al. 2003) highlighted three worldview values important to this population: fatalism, that is the belief
that one is powerless to control the onset and progression of cancer; temporal orientation, that is how events and their consequences are perceived in terms of past, present, and future implications; and religiosity (Hughes et al. 2003). Both a future temporal orientation and high levels of fatalism are positively associated with testing and counseling uptake in African American women (Edwards et al. 2008; Hughes et al. 2003). For example, in one study, a future orientation was positively related to greater perceived benefits of genetic testing (Edwards et al. LGX818 in vitro 2008). In another study of 28 at-risk African American women, higher levels of future temporal Megestrol Acetate orientation and fatalism were found in women who accepted genetic testing, compared with those who declined (Hughes et al. 2003). Similarly, Kessler et al. found that high levels of fatalistic beliefs were associated with greater consideration of genetic testing participation (Kessler et al. 2005). Regarding religiosity,
Hughes et al. reported no significant association between religious coping style and participation in the genetic testing process. However, they did acknowledge a trend for women who reported coping with difficult situations by working together with God to be more likely to participate in genetic risk assessment and counseling (Hughes et al. 2003). Breast cancer-related emotional distress and self-regulatory competencies An important aspect of an individual’s reaction to health risk information, such as genetic risk, involves the regulation of their emotional responses (Miller et al. 1996, 1999). Similar to Caucasian women, African American women with an increased risk for developing breast cancer report a moderate cancer-related distress prior to undergoing genetic counseling and testing (Durfy et al. 1999; Halbert et al. 2005a; Armstrong et al. 2005). Indeed, two studies report that concerns of being unable to “handle” the testing and results, and feeling overwhelmed by anxiety, are reasons cited by African American women for not undergoing testing (Matthews et al.