Furthermore, SWNTs can act as a quantum dot between metal electrodes and hence show Coulomb blockade (CB) tunneling characteristics at sufficiently low temperatures [44–47]. Incidentally, both TLL and CB theories predict the same scaling laws: the resistance R is proportional to T -α when eV < < k B T (low-bias regime) and to V -α when eV > > k B T (high-bias regime), where V, α, and e, are the voltage drop across the sample, a single scaling

coefficient, and the charge of an electron, respectively [46]. In order to extract the values of click here R in the two different regimes, current–voltage (IV) curves for both samples are measured at various temperatures as shown in Figure 5a,b. At high-bias voltages and low-bias Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor voltage at high temperatures, the IV curves are basically linear with the current I in both samples. However, at low bias and low temperatures, the IVs are not

linear, especially in sample SWNT2. The origin of this curvature is discussed below. Figure 5 Current–voltage (IV) curves. For samples (a) SWNT1 and (b) SWNT2 measured at several temperatures from 300 to 2 K. Solid lines are guides to the eyes. First, for sample SWNT1, the low bias R is extracted from the IV curves at I = 1 nA and plotted in a log-log graph versus temperature as shown in Figure 6a. The data fits well a power law above 30 K, with α ≈ 0.1. Note that k B T = 2.59 meV > > eV = 0.29 meV at 30 K. This is in agreement with the regime of validity of the theory. Furthermore, the value of α ≈ 0.1 is in the same order as the reported values in the literature for SWNTs [41, 46, 47]. Next, R, in the high-bias regime, Forskolin order is extracted from the IV curves at T = 2, 5, and 10 K and plotted in a log-log graph versus voltage as shown in Figure 6b. The low temperatures were chosen in order to be as close as possible

to the condition eV > > k B T for this regime. For voltages V higher than about 10 mV, the curve fits well a power law, with α ≈ 0.1. This is in very good agreement with the extracted value from R versus T in the other regime. Furthermore, knowing that k B T ≈ 0.9 meV at T = 10 K, the range of voltages where the power-law fit is found to hold (i.e., above 10 meV), indeed satisfies reasonably well the condition eV > > k B T. The inset of Figure 6b shows that from 20 K and above, the resistance is essentially independent of the applied voltage, i.e., the IV curves are linear, which is exactly what was observed in Figure 5a. Hence, the behavior of SWNT1 is consistent with both LLD and CB theories with a scaling exponent α ≈ 0.1. First, it is noted that the extracted contact resistance, R c = 8 kΩ, is higher than the quantum resistance R Q , which satisfies a necessary condition for the occurrence of the CB [48]. Another theoretical condition for achieving CB is to have the charging buy MK-1775 energy E c of the SWNT higher than the thermal energy k B T, with E c ≈ 2.