Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that determine prote

Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that determine protein-protein interaction specificity for the Arabidopsis MADS domain transcription factor family, using an integrated computational and experimental approach. Plant

MADS proteins have highly similar amino acid sequences, but their dimerization patterns vary substantially. Our computational analysis uncovered small sequence regions that explain observed differences in dimerization patterns with reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, we show the usefulness of the method for prediction of MADS domain transcription factor interaction networks in other plant species. Introduction of mutations in the predicted interaction motifs demonstrated that single amino acid mutations can have a large effect and lead to loss or gain AZD2171 of specific interactions. In addition, various performed bioinformatics analyses shed light on the way evolution has shaped MADS domain transcription factor interaction specificity. Identified protein-protein interaction motifs

appeared to be strongly conserved among orthologs, indicating their evolutionary importance. We also provide evidence that mutations in these motifs can be a source for sub- or neo-functionalization. The analyses presented here take us a step forward in understanding protein-protein interactions and the interplay between protein sequences and network evolution.”
“Background: While studies have demonstrated higher medium-term mortality for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), mortality and costs have not been characterized for Selleck Buparlisib healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) over a 1-year period.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate mortality

rates and health system costs for patients with CAP or HCAP during initial hospitalization and for 1 year after hospital discharge. We selected 50 758 patients EPZ5676 mw admitted to the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system between October 2003 and May 2007. Main outcome measures included hospital, post-discharge, and cumulative mortality rates and cost during initial hospitalization and at 12 months following discharge.

Results: Hospital and 1-year HCAP mortality were nearly twice that of CAP. HCAP was an independent predictor for hospital mortality (odds ratio (OR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-1.76) and 1-year mortality (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.87-2.11) when controlling for demographics, comorbidities, pneumonia severity, and factors associated with multidrug-resistant infection, including immune suppression, previous antibiotic treatment, and aspiration pneumonia. HCAP patients consistently had higher mortality in each stratum of the Charlson-Deyo-Quan comorbidity index. HCAP patients incurred significantly greater cost during the initial hospital stay and in the following 12 months. Demographics and comorbid conditions, particularly aspiration pneumonia, accounted for 19-33% of this difference.

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