unlike NFAT and AP-1 factors that interact and collaborate in binding to DNA, NFAT, and NF-κB seem neither to interact nor to collaborate. We show here that NF-κB1/p50 and c-Rel, the most prominent NF-κB proteins in BCR-induced splenic B cells, control the induction of NFATc1/αA, a prominent short NFATc1 isoform. In part, this is mediated through two composite κB/NFAT-binding sites in the inducible Nfatc1 P1 promoter that directs the induction of NFATc1/αA by BCR signals. In concert with coreceptor signals that induce NF-κB factors, BCR signaling induces a persistent generation of NFATc1/αA. These data suggest a tight connection between NFATc1 and NF-κB induction in B lymphocytes contributing to the effector function of peripheral B cells. “
“Ficolins are soluble molecules of the innate immune system that recognize carbohydrate molecules on microbial pathogens, apoptotic and necrotic
PS-341 cells. They act through two distinct routes: initiating the lectin pathway of complement activation and mediating a primitive opsonophagocytosis. In this study, we measured plasma levels of ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 in 60 pre-eclamptic patients, 60 healthy Silmitasertib order pregnant women and 59 healthy non-pregnant women by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating levels of complement activation products (C4d, C3a, SC5b9), angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, placental growth factor) and markers of endothelial activation (von Willebrand factor antigen), endothelial injury (fibronectin) and trophoblast debris (cell-free fetal DNA) were also determined. Plasma levels Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II of ficolin-2 were significantly lower in healthy pregnant than in healthy non-pregnant women, while ficolin-3 levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. Furthermore, pre-eclamptic patients had significantly lower ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 concentrations than healthy non-pregnant and pregnant women. In the pre-eclamptic group,
plasma ficolin-2 levels showed a significant positive correlation with serum placental growth factor (PlGF) concentrations and significant inverse correlations with serum levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, serum lactate dehydrogenase activities, as well as with plasma VWF:antigen, fibronectin and cell-free fetal DNA concentrations. In conclusion, circulating levels of ficolin-2 are decreased in the third trimester of normal pregnancy. There is a further decrease in plasma ficolin-2 concentrations in pre-eclampsia, which might contribute to the development of the maternal syndrome of the disease through impaired removal of the trophoblast-derived material released into the maternal circulation by the hypoxic and oxidatively stressed pre-eclamptic placenta.