However, with respect to arsenic intake the way of cooking significantly contributes to the arsenic intake originating from rice (Mihucz et al., 2007). According to EFSA’s
risk characterisation, children who are fed with rice-based baby formula may be exposed to a higher intake of inorganic arsenic than other consumers (EFSA, 2010). Based on that assessment, children under three years of age are believed to be exposed to between two to three times more inorganic arsenic than adults because children consume more food relative to their OSI-906 price body weight than adults. The dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in children under three years of age has been estimated to be 0.50 – 2.66 μg/kg bw per day. These estimates are lower than BMDL0.1 values Selleckchem DZNeP for those thought to be causing lung and bladder cancer as well for dermal lesions (0.3 – 8 μg/kg bw per day). In Europe, the average dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic is in the range 0.13 – 0.56 μg/kg bw per day; for high level adult consumers it is between 0.37 – 1.22 μg/kg bw per day. However, in certain ethnic groups the exposure to inorganic arsenic can be higher, for example avid consumers of rice (certain ethnic groups) it can be 0.95 μg/kg bw per day, in individuals eating a lot of algae-based products it can be as high as 4.03 μg/kg bw per day. Nonetheless these values for exposure are still within the range of BMDL0.1 values. In this article we describe a fully validated
method for the determination of total and inorganic arsenic in rice. We also assessed total and inorganic arsenic levels in long grain rice and rice-based baby food products on the Finnish market. This paper also performs a risk assessment for inorganic arsenic from long grain rice and rice based baby food in different age groups in Finland. The samples evaluated in this study were long grain rice
and baby food products based on rice. Eight brands of long grain rice were purchased from a Finnish supermarket, three packets of each brand. Rice-based baby foods were also bought from a Finnish supermarket. Three packets of each ten brands Tideglusib were purchased. Baby porridge powders were composed only on rice or rice and other cereals. Some of the powders contained also dried fruits. There are commercially available rice or other cereal based reference materials which have a certified value for total arsenic level not for the distinct inorganic arsenic or arsenic species. We utilised IMEP-107 – test material (The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurands IRMM, Joint Research Centre JRC, European Commission, Belgium) rice flour as a reference material in the inorganic arsenic analysis. The IMEP-107 has been used as a test material in one interlaboratory comparison in 2009 – 2010. For total arsenic determination, NIST Standard Reference Material® 1568a Rice Flour (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA), was used as the reference material.