If possible, these must be replaced with an alternative agent suc

If possible, these must be replaced with an alternative agent such as angiotensin receptor blocker. While there are some anecdotal reports [82] in the literature of severe anaphylaxis to VIT in patients on concurrent treatment Fostamatinib with ACE inhibitors, a recent retrospective study in a small cohort of patients did not confirm this observation [83]. There is some evidence in the literature from studies in a small group of subjects that premedication with antihistamine reduces severity

of histamine-mediated local reactions, including erythema and induration, and generalized cutaneous response such as urticaria and angioedema, but they do not prevent or abrogate anaphylaxis [65,84,85]. Some allergists express concern about antihistamines potentially masking early symptoms of an allergic reaction to injections, but this is not evidence-based. It is worth noting that recent large multi-centre SCIT hay fever trials included premedication with a short-acting antihistamine [11]. The purpose of allergen standardization is to enhance sensitivity and specificity of the extracts used for diagnosis of allergy as well as to

minimize the qualitative and quantitative variation in the composition of the vaccines in order to obtain higher safety standards, efficacy and accuracy. The first international initiative on allergen standardization was the establishment of the Nordic Guidelines, based on Danish Allergen Standardization in 1976 [86]. The World Health Organization (WHO) and European Pharmacopoeia have published guidelines on allergen standardization. Buparlisib concentration In Europe, current guidelines dictate the use of ‘in-house’ reference preparation (IHRP) by all manufacturers for monitoring ‘batch-to-batch’ control [87,88]. The source material for allergy vaccines should represent the allergen to which Baricitinib humans are exposed and should meet the specified criteria for limits on foreign substances and be free of microbial contamination [86]. The manufacturing process must not alter the immunogenicity of the vaccine. A major aspect of allergen standardization

is to control for total allergenic potency, which is achieved with international collaboration between manufacturers and control authorities using the same standards that are available from the National Institute of Biological Standards and Control, Herts, UK [86]. The ‘in-house’ reference preparation used by individual laboratories is compared with the international standard and ‘batch-to-batch’ control involves monitoring the quantity of major allergens [86]. Another approach has been to use chemically modified allergens (allergoids) treated with formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde, which reduce allergenicity (IgE binding) but retain immunogenicity, and so theoretically would reduce the incidence of systemic reactions [86]. These are available for a number of allergens on a named patient basis, including pollens, house dust mite, animal dander and fungal spores.

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