In general, with the number of SNP loci those studies have consid

In general, with the number of SNP loci those studies have considered, di-allelic SNPs do not resolve all possible ambiguities. While clearly the multiallelic microhaps will be better, per locus, than the di-allelic SNPs, it is not clear what the optimal number of microhap loci will be. The answers will depend on the population-specific number of alleles and level of heterozygosity of each microhap in the panel used. Since we expect more and better microhaps will be identified in the near future, and we are not advocating the present set as optimal, such important statistical questions are better

addressed when a better set of loci has been documented. Because large numbers of loci can be multiplexed with the current sequencing technology, many more loci will be added to any final panel. As new microhaps are identified and added to the panel it would be possible to tune the panel toward individual identification or Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library high throughput ancestry, but with enough microhaps that may be moot. The results for these 31 loci suggest that a large enough panel containing this range of locus patterns may provide good ancestry information and sufficiently low match probabilities globally that the variation among populations becomes irrelevant. Microhap loci with three or four SNPs can have higher heterozygosity

and identifying and adding such loci Doxorubicin order may provide sufficient information to meet all purposes: lineage/kinship as well as individual identification and ancestry. It is also desirable to have other research groups replicate the results reported here on additional samples from the sample populations as well as validate results on new populations. Since the 54 populations studied already cover much of the world and many of the as yet unstudied populations share similar genetic and demographic histories, it is reasonable to expect that most new populations studied will also be found to have excellent heterozygosities and genotype resolvabilities. In order to Ribonuclease T1 make the panel more generally useful it might also be desirable to find some additional

unlinked microhaps that might have enhanced heterozygosities for Native American and Pacific Island populations. Fine tuning the panel might also be desirable by replacing some of the loci in the current panel with loci that are found to have more alleles and better average heterozygosities worldwide and also in particular geographical regions. Microhaps comprised of three SNPs are likely to be significantly better than those based on only two SNPs as are the majority of the loci in this initial panel. We have already identified several additional three-SNP and four-SNP loci with four or more alleles and are now working to collect the population data. The high throughput methods now available with the appropriate read lengths for these microhaps have enormous capacity. Additional microhaps are clearly needed and can easily be accommodated.

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