In particular, a striking pattern is seen for sequences from Anta

In particular, a striking BIRB 796 molecular weight pattern is seen for sequences from Antarctic and Arctic regions clustering into sub-group 1a, which opens up the possibility for a bi-polar or anti-tropical distribution. If further diversity studies confirm this pattern, it would be congruent with geographic distribution of dinoflagellates and foraminiferans [45, 46].

Three other clades also appear to be endemic; the clade 2i from the Sargasso Sea and 2h and 2f, are only composed of Indian Ocean and the Norwegian Framvaren Fjord sequences respectively (Figure 1). In addition there is a large assembly of sequences from the Svalbard region that could indicate the presence of a Norwegian-Barents Sea population, but this assembly is only moderately supported Volasertib cell line (Figure 1). Cryptic diversity of Telonemia in freshwater In order to investigate the putative existence of Telonemia in freshwater CBL-0137 clinical trial we had to use a nested PCR amplification strategy. This could explain why so little sequence data from Telonemia in freshwater has been generated previously and confirm visual

observations that freshwater Telonemia exists only in minute quantities (L. Lepistö unpublished). The sequences obtained from the three different Norwegian freshwater lakes, Lake Lutvann, Lake Sværsvann and Lake Pollen, together with a few publicly available freshwater environmental sequences, formed three clades (1d, 2e and 2p) and two single phylotypes with representatives in both TEL 1 and TEL 2 (Figure 1). In Lake Lutvann we sampled both the sediment and the water column.

Strikingly, these sequences formed two distantly related habitat-specific clades, in which all the benthic sequences clustered into one group (1d) and the Cyclooxygenase (COX) pelagic sequences into another (2e), highlighting a vertical stratification of phylotypes or populations within this lake at the time of sampling (Figure 1). Sub-group 2e was in addition composed of sequences from the pelagic zone of the two other Norwegian lakes as well as three other freshwater sequences from Svalbard and France. A few other phylotypes in TEL 1 may represent additional successful transitions from marine to freshwater lakes. One sequence (DGGE band 20) is sampled from a hyperhaline lake in Chile, Lake Tebenquiche that is situated in the Andes at 2500 m.a.s.l. The lake is classified as hyperhaline but has extreme variations in salinity, ranging from 1% to 30% [47]; hence the potential Telonemia species from this lake could be adapted to any of these salinity conditions or could simply be a marine species that have dispersed into the lake. Another sequence (B-2-8), is sampled from the Bayelva River in Svalbard, which is composed of glacial melt water as well as water from nearby freshwater lakes [48], and discharges into the Kings Bay delta in Spitsbergen.

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