KS, a grant from KCOM Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program to K

K.S., a grant from KCOM Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program to K.S. and an ASDOH summer internship to M.R.C. “
“Osmoadaptation may be an important trait for the pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. However, how this organism adapts to changes in osmolality in the oral cavity remains unclear. In this study, we showed that S. mutans utilizes K+ for osmoadaptation, in

which protease maturation lipoprotein (PrtM) plays an important role. Although growth of the wild-type strain was impaired in a hyperosmotic medium [brain heart infusion (BHI) containing AG-014699 order 0.3 M NaCl] compared with that in an unmodified BHI, the prtM mutant grew much more poorly in 0.3 M NaCl BHI. Comparison of growth behavior in the hyperosmotic medium supplemented with different osmoprotectants revealed that only the addition of K+ allowed the bacteria to overcome the impairment of growth caused by the high osmolality. These results suggest that K+ is an important compatible solute for S. mutans. Moreover, K+-associated recovery of growth was not observed for the prtM mutant, indicating that PrtM plays a critical role in the utilization of K+. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase Selumetinib mouse chain reaction analysis showed that

prtM was induced by osmotic stress, implying that prtM is an osmoresponsive gene. These findings suggest that K+ is an important compatible solute for S. mutans, and that the osmoresponsive lipoprotein PrtM is involved in K+ utilization, contributing to osmoadaptation of S. mutans. “
“Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences and Bioengineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Brussel, Belgium Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants produced by the soil bacterium

Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition to their high industrial potential as surface-active molecules, rhamnolipids also have antimicrobial properties. In densely populated habitats, such as the soil, production of antimicrobial compounds is important to inhibit growth of competitors. For the latter, it is crucial for survival to sense and respond to the presence of those antibiotics. To gain a first insight Interleukin-2 receptor into the biological competition involving biosurfactants, we investigated the cellular response of the model organism Bacillus subtilis upon exposure to rhamnolipids by genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Most of the differentially expressed genes can be assigned to two different regulatory networks: the cell envelope stress response mediated by the two-component system LiaRS and the extracytoplasmic function σ factor σM and the CssRS-dependent secretion stress response. Subsequent phenotypic analysis demonstrated a protective function of LiaRS and σM against cell lysis caused by rhamnolipids. Taken together, we present the first evidence that a single antimicrobial compound can simultaneously induce genes from two independent stress stimulons.

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