Materials and Methods: This prospective single-center HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Forty-eight patients (31 men, 17 women; age range, 35-77 years) with 60 malignant hypervascular liver tumors (mean diameter, 20.1 mm +/-
16.4 [standard deviation]) were enrolled. Pathologic proof of focal lesions was obtained with histopathologic analysis for 33 nodules and imaging follow-up after a minimum of 12 months for 27 nodules. Patients underwent dual-energy 64-section multi-detector row CT. By using vendor-specific software, two imaging DZNeP inhibitor protocols-140 kVp and 385 mA (protocol A) and 80 kVp and 675 mA (protocol B)-were compared during the late hepatic arterial phase of contrast enhancement. Paired t tests were used to compare tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for each lesion, mean image noise, and effective dose between the two data sets. Three readers qualitatively
assessed the two data sets in a blinded and independent fashion. Lesion detection and characterization and reader confidence were recorded, as well as readers’ subjective evaluations of image quality. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney statistical analysis was performed on this assessment.
Results: SBE-β-CD ic50 Image noise increased from 5.7 to 11.4 HU as the tube voltage this website decreased from 140 to 80 kVp (P < .0001), resulting in a significantly lower image quality score (4.0 vs 3.0, respectively) with protocol B according to all readers (P < .001). At the same time, protocol B yielded significantly higher CNR (8.2 vs 6.4) and lesion conspicuity scores (4.6 vs 4.1) than protocol A, along with a lower effective dose (5.1 vs 17.5 mSv) (P < .001 for all).
Conclusion: By substantially increasing the tumor-to-liver CNR, a low tube voltage, high tube current CT technique improves the conspicuity of malignant hypervascular liver tumors during the late hepatic arterial phase while significantly reducing
patient radiation dose. (C) RSNA, 2009″
“The atomic and electronic properties of black phosphorus (BP), which has been recently shown to have potential application as anode material for lithium ion batteries, are studied via ab initio calculations. The calculations reveal that the interlayer interaction in BP is Van der Waals Keesom force, which is critical to the formation of the layered structure. Interestingly, we also found that the small band gap of bulk BP (0.19 eV) when compared with that of single layer BP (0.75 eV) is partly because of the interlayer Van der Waals interaction in BP. The change in a materials band structure because of Van der Waals interaction is rarely reported in literature. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.