melanogaster w1118 This increase is possibly caused by the spec

melanogaster w1118 . This increase is possibly caused by the specific effect of the Wolbachia strain wMelPop, since it was not observed in wMel-infected D. melanogaster Canton S. Our current electron microscopic observations allowed us to identify

changes in Wolbachia morphology in apoptotic germline cells. Morphological evidence of apoptosis in germarium cells The ultrastructural features of apoptosis in the cyst cells of higher eukaryotes have gained wide recognition. They include cytoplasmic and nuclear condensation (pyknosis); nuclear fragmentation (karyorrhexis); normal morphological appearance of cytoplasmic organelles; see more an intact plasma membrane [3, 4]. The ultrastructural AICAR changes we identified here in D. melanogaster cyst cells are consistent with the above hallmarks. Furthermore, we revealed mitochondria of two types: intact morphology in one type and markedly swollen with a few cristae in the other. A similar heterogeneity of mitochondrial ultrastructure has been observed during apoptosis in granulose cells of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) [30], lymphocytes from leukemia patients [31],

and megakaryocytes from patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura [32]. It has been suggested that the swollen mitochondria release cytochrome c, which activates a cascade of proteolytic reactions, while the normal ones retain their capacity for ATP synthesis, a process apoptosis requires [30, 31, 33]. According to our qualitative analysis using EM, morphological evidence of apoptosis was revealed in germline cells from uninfected flies and those infected with wMel and wMelPop. Thus, there are this website reasons for inferring that the endosymbiont Wolbachia in D. melanogaster cystocytes has no effect on sequential passage of intracellular organelles through apoptosis. To reveal the possible differences

between the effect of the wMel and wMelPop strains on apoptosis in the germaria, additional Megestrol Acetate morphometric analysis of the number of apoptotic structures and of Wolbachia density in the cystocytes is required. Structural features of Wolbachia in apoptotic cysts Wolbachia with matrix of moderate and low electron density in apoptotic cells in region 2a/2b of the germarium have been previously encountered in other types of D. melanogaster ovaries [34] and they presumably reflect different functional states of bacteria. Wolbachia with disrupted envelopes and light matrix are possibly dying bacteria in apoptotic cells. Such appearance has not been observed in Wolbachia injured or killed by heat stress [35] and tetracycline [36]. The electron-dense bacteria-like structures at the periphery of region 1 of the germarium may be evidence of changes in dying Wolbachia.

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