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“Introduction The cytoplasmic membrane (CM) plays a universal role in cells of all three domains of life. This semipermeable barrier isolates the cytoplasm from the external environment, but environmental changes can result in changes in gene expression that lead to alterations in composition and concentration of both lipids and proteins. The membrane can also undergo regulated restructurings that are critical to cell function. In
eukaryotic cells, these events, such as those triggered by phagocytosis and cell motility, are commonplace (Lippencott and Li 2000). However, among bacteria, only a few such restructurings have been described, and are thus far limited to the α-proteobacteria. One such restructuring event EPZ015666 chemical structure is the differentiation of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides CM leading to the formation of the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) that houses the photosynthesis system of these bacteria (Chory et al. 1984), consisting of the pigment–protein complexes of the reaction SB525334 price center (RC) and the two light-harvesting complexes, LHI Vildagliptin and LHII. Our present understanding of the composition and development of R. sphaeroides ICM has been comprehensively reviewed recently (Niederman 2013). As is appropriate for (facultative) anoxygenic photosynthesis, ICM
formation is induced by lowering oxygen tensions, and in R. sphaeroides wild type strain 2.4.1 three DNA binding proteins that mediate oxygen control of phototrophic growth and/or PS genes (genes that code for the structural proteins, and the enzymes that synthesize the photopigments of the photosynthetic apparatus) are known. Photosynthesis response regulatory protein A (PrrA) is the DNA binding regulatory protein of a redox-responsive two-component regulatory system (Eraso and Kaplan 1994, 1995). A functional prrA gene is required for phototrophic growth of R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 (Eraso and Kaplan 1994). Photopigment suppressor protein R (PpsR) is a transcription repressor of PS genes under aerobic conditions that was initially characterized by Penfold and Pemberton (1994). Its most important role is thought to be preventing the coincidence of Bchl a in the presence of oxygen and light (Moskvin et al. 2005), which can create a lethal situation through the production of reactive oxygen species.