Precipitating CD177 from the neutrophil Selleckchem Bortezomib membrane and performing mass spectrometry, we found that several molecules co-precipitated with CD177. Among those proteins were the FcγIIIR as well as Mac-1 . CD177 and Mac-1 co-localized, co-precipitated and showed direct protein interactions by plasmon-resonance analysis and when Mac-1 transfected cells interacted with immobilized NB1. We subsequently established that Mac-1 was a functionally important transmembrane component of the PR3 membrane complex, allowing subsequent PR3–ANCA-induced activation predominantly of mPR3high/NB1positive neutrophils (Fig. 2). However, we observed that degranulation and
extracellular superoxide generation, but not intracellular hydrogen peroxide formation depended on the mPR3 phenotype. Interestingly, PR3–ANCA were equally potent in inducing DHR oxidation selleck compound in mPR3high/NB1positive and mPR3low/NB1negative cells an observation also made by Hu et al. . The underlying mechanism for this finding still needs to be elucidated. As mentioned, MPO membrane expression by neutrophils is somewhat scarce and much less is known as to how signalling is initiated after MPO–ANCA bind their target. Hess et al. found that large amounts of MPO can
be acquired by resting neutrophils from supernatants of activated neutrophils. This acquired surface MPO allowed MPO–ANCA binding and neutrophil activation . Others showed that MPO is presented by CD11b promoting neutrophil activation even in the absence and presence of anti-MPO antibodies [57,58]. Initial studies on ANCA-induced signalling events showed that distinct intracellular signalling events Dichloromethane dehalogenase mediated ANCA-induced neutrophil
activation. Tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C activation by ANCA, but not by control IgG, was observed by Radford et al. . Blocking both kinases using pharmacological inhibitors abrogated ANCA-induced superoxide generation. These experiments encouraged further characterization of the signal transduction cascade involved in ANCA-induced neutrophil activation. The implication was to block important key elements specifically and thereby identify novel and more specific treatment targets. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) are important during both priming and the ANCA-induced neutrophil activation. Priming increases the amount of membrane-expressed antigens, but also sparks signalling pathways that are needed for a subsequent ANCA-induced full-blown activation. Both p38 MAPK and ERK are initiated during TNF-α priming and their blockade abrogates subsequent ANCA-induced activation. However, both pathways show differential effects in that p38 MAPK, but not ERK, controls the ANCA-antigen translocation .