The damage consists of cracks, rills, gullies, sheet wash, scars,

The damage consists of cracks, rills, gullies, sheet wash, scars, and landslides or landslips.

According to the authors, every year farm households spend a great deal of labour on the maintenance of terraces and the control of gullies, landslides, and floods on cultivated fields. The phenomenon of abandoned agricultural land has recently led to pronounced socioeconomic and environmental problems in Nepal. Such areas require effective management to reduce environmental risks and improve the livelihoods of farm households (Khanal and Watanabe, 2006). In mountainous or hilly regions of China, terrace construction is one of the most important and preferred measures implemented in land consolidation projects (Fan et al., 2008 and Liu Fulvestrant mw et al., 2013), and it represents one of the greatest demonstrations of land surface modification (Liu et al., 2013). Xu et al. (2012) discussed a case study in the Three-Gorges area where several soil conservation measures, such as terracing hedgerows, are widely implemented in citrus orchards to control soil erosion. Perifosine cell line Schönbrodt-Stitt et al. (2013) described the rapid agricultural changes in the same area. Due to resettlements, construction

of new infrastructure, and new land reclamation, the degradation of the cultivated terraced landscape is expected to increase significantly. This region also has the highest soil erosion rates in China (Zhou, 2008). Schönbrodt-Stitt et al. (2013) collected data on the state of terrace maintenance and terrace design to account for terrace stability

and thus for the capability of soil conservation. Mainly the terraces were associated with oranges (77%), followed by cultivation of dry land crops such as grape, wheat, and maize (15%), and garden land typically cropped with vegetables and fruits (7%). BCKDHA They observed several terraces partially or completely collapsed. The results of their analysis suggested that the anthropogenic effects, such as the distance to settlements or to roads, are the major drivers for the spatial distribution of terrace conditions. Inbar and Llerena (2000) addressed the problem of changing human activities in the fragile environment of the historical terraces in the Central Andean Mountains of Peru. Peruvian landscapes are characterized by an old system of agricultural terraces (Spencer and Hale, 1961). These mountain regions are now affected by a significant change in land use and human behaviour. Traditional subsistence agriculture is being replaced by a market-oriented economy of labour and agricultural production (Inbar and Llerena, 2000). The young generation living in the mountain area is now moving to coastal cities for better job opportunities. The result is soil erosion on traditional terraces that have been abandoned because of the lack of maintenance of the drainage systems and of the terracing practices.

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