The local networks thus established were called Biocentres. The recent establishment of a competitive State subsidy funding system (EVO-funding) has also provided university clinics with additional funding for clinical research and training of physicians (Academy of Finland 2009). However, public sector reforms in the 1990s have decentralized competences towards municipalities (regional authorities), giving these authorities an internationally unprecedented level of competence and financial responsibility
for health policy (Hakkinen and Lehto 2005). These municipalities have in turn had a tendency to take find more funds earmarked for research to finance clinical care (Academy of Finland 2009; The Science and Technology Policy Council of Finland 2008; Visakorpi 2009). So while the Finnish academic medical research sector seems to be facing institutional obstacles to the conduct of TR work, recent policy discussions have taken up the arguments of the TR narrative in efforts to reform local clinical research infrastructures. Germany The Translational Research Alliance in Lower-Saxony (TRAIN) offers an interesting mTOR inhibitor case to illustrate the development of TR activities in Germany. The initiative is explicitly
concerned with developing new compounds. This aim is check details explicitly carried over in the shape of the collaboration and the members it includes. TRAIN regroups seven partners that STK38 all directly take part in various tasks and work packages of the collaboration’s projects. These institutes are located in relative proximity within the two largest cities of the region. Founding members
of the consortium are the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), the Hannover Medical School (MHH), the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), the Technische Universität Carolo-Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig and the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover. An additional member of the consortium is the life sciences project management firm VPM. These founding members have launched a number of joint ventures that act as additional members of the consortium, including: Twincore, which brings together researchers from the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research with large laboratory equipment for analyzing pharmaceutically active substances with clinicians and laboratory scientists with a clinical background from the nearby Hannover Medical School; the Centre for Biomolecular Drug Research, a screening and drug development facility and the forthcoming Clinical Research Center, linking capacities for early clinical trials to pre-clinical laboratory facilities.