The second point will be discussed in the

following secti

The second point will be discussed in the

following section on management. Specific inputs are required for each type of development intervention (i.e., tourism, aquaculture, PES, etc.). A discussion of each livelihood is beyond the scope of the current paper; however, this review revealed a number of themes regarding the achievement of successful outcomes from various development interventions. First, the literature addresses how development needs to adopt participatory, adaptive, and equitable processes. Rarely are livelihoods initiatives imposed by organizations from the outside sustained over the long term. As an antidote to top-down development, participatory development processes may be more likely to lead to successful outcomes through facilitating co-learning and consensus-building, empowerment,

17-AAG cost and local mobilization [11], [76], [96], [104] and [127]. Simple processes, such as Participatory Rural Appraisal [165] or the Sustainable Livelihood Enhancement and Diversification (SLED) approach [159], can be used to facilitate participation Cisplatin mw in development. Development should also adopt an adaptive process of monitoring, feedback, and learning [35] and [111]. Adaptive learning also needs to be integrated into MPA-related conservation and development discourse and practice at a broader scale so that failed initiatives are not repeated and successes are recognized. Conservation and development programs should address the needs of potentially marginalized groups. Incorporating gender considerations, for example, into design of development programs and women׳s resource use patterns into MPA design can lead to greater benefits for households and the larger community [53], [78] and [93]. Participatory processes PDK4 can also lead to an improved understanding of the context from the perspective of local people which can be incorporated into the design of locally grounded and appropriate

solutions [104], [126] and [166]. Pre-assessments are important since assumptions about context can result in unsuccessful programs of action [167]. It is important to understand how micro to macro level contextual factors, such as access to markets, local capabilities, policy environments, levels of social cohesion, leadership capacity, and cultural norms, influence current marine uses and how these may facilitate or impede alternative livelihood development [35], [75], [161] and [168]. Third, authors suggest that development of alternative livelihoods often requires attention to building local capabilities through increasing financial and human capital, as well as physical assets (e.g., fishing gear, boats, basic and tourism infrastructure). Ongoing programs of education and capacity building are necessary for resource users to nurture occupational flexibility and acquire the skills necessary to engage in new livelihoods [17], [122], [160], [169] and [170].

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