The significance levels of PC, SV, and WGC were greater than 0 05

The significance levels of PC, SV, and WGC were greater than 0.05 (1.000, 0.963, and 0.405, respectively), suggesting that there was no significant difference in wheat flour quality among varieties released in different periods. Table 4 shows comparisons of dough rheological properties among varieties released in different breeding periods. It is readily seen that

DT, ST, and FQN did not increase 5-Fluoracil nmr significantly (P > 0.05) in period II but improved significantly (P < 0.01) in period IV, as compared with period Ι. DT and FQN were significantly higher in period III than in either period I (P < 0.05) or II (P < 0.01). ST and FQN differed significantly between period II and period IV. selleck kinase inhibitor Although the average values of rheological properties increased from period III to period IV, no significant differences among them were found. All of these results suggest that the rheological properties of Chinese wheat genetic resources have greatly improved since 1949, but that the rate of improvement is slowing. The mean value of PC in our research was 13.2%, lower than that of bread wheat in the worldwide collection (14.5%) [19] and of North Dakota wheat in the U.S. (14.7%) [10], but higher than that of European wheat (10.3%) and American winter wheat (12.7%) [9] and [20]. In this study, the mean value of DT was 2.7 min, which is less than the average mixing time (defined as the midline peak time)

of American hard red spring wheat (3.1 min) [10] and American hard red winter wheat (3.7 min) [9], but similar to the average mixing time of the world’s wheat core collection (2.8 min) [19]. The mean value of SV in our study (30.3 mL) was consistent with that of the hard red

winter wheat cultivars Quinapyramine in Nebraska (30.69 mL) [9]. It could be concluded that the wheat quality of China was at a middle level in the worldwide ranking. Zhu et al. [21] reported that PC of Chinese wheat (12.9%) was slightly higher than that of Australian wheat (12.5%), but that STs were 2.32 min for China and 3.50 min for Australia. The CV values of DT and PC obtained in this study (40.5% and 9.1%) were higher than those of the American hard red winter wheat (14.8% and 5.7%) [9], but lower than those of the worldwide core collection (42.2% and 11.0%) [19]. The larger CV values from the world wheat core collection maybe attributed to the diversity of sources and cultivars, especially landraces. Thus, it is essential to extend the gene bank of wheat breeding by characterizing the genetic diversity of Chinese wheat landraces. The data of dough properties were analyzed by assuming both normal distribution and non-normal distribution. When a normal distribution was assumed, significant differences were found for DT, ST, and FQN. However, no significant difference was found for ST by assuming a non-normal distribution (statistical analyses are not shown).

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