Their processes are well-developed

in number and size Th

Their processes are well-developed

in number and size. The figures also show that the nanowires penetrated the neural body. Under this intracellular interfacing, the LY3023414 entire cell membrane is complete and undamaged, retaining a structural functionality despite the distinct penetration of nanowires from the bottom to the top of the neuron cells. In the case of moderate density, hippocampal neurons failed to withstand wiring damage, as shown in Additional file 1: Figure S3e of supplementary data. The figure shows that many cells were destroyed, losing their original shape. The cell debris was tangled with nanowires in many locations. This indicates that the primary cell had grown and developed for some time after BMN 673 datasheet cell seeding. On the substrate with the highest nanowire density, hippocampal neurons showed no growth

and remained embryonic in shape (Additional file 1: Figure S3f of supplementary data). This reveals that cells have specific Endocrinology inhibitor tolerance toward the amount of nanowire penetration. GH3 cells are more active and thus are not as sensitive to the density of the nanowires as hippocampal neuron cells. Previous studies indicate that probing cells using electronic devices are highly sensitive to the types of interfaces, as the most critical point in signal transfer from the cell to the device is the interface between these two domains [31–34]. In particular, the interface should have no cleft in order to allow signal transfer. The intracellular interfaces between nanowires and cells have not been investigated, and thus, these were examined in this study. Additional file 1: Figure S4a of supplementary data shows a schematic drawing of the cross-sectioning process. The intracellular coupled interfaces were cross-sectioned parallel to the longitudinal direction of the nanowires using a high-resolution Cross Beam focused ion beam field emitted SEM (FIB-FESEM). The sidewall was polished with a low ion current and

imaged by SEM in an in situ mode. Additional file 1: Figure S4b of supplementary data shows a SEM image of the neuron-nanowire Sunitinib interface from the cross-section parallel to the longitudinal direction of the nanowires. The entire cross-sectional interfacial structure was well preserved, and distinct shrunken artifacts were not found. The nanowire penetrated the neuron membrane, which is attached tightly to the nanowires. These outcomes indicate that Si nanowires with diameters of <100 nm, lengths of several micrometers, and approximate densities of 2.5 × 104 mm−2 can achieve intracellular interfacing with excitable cells in a living state with tight interfaces without any cleft. This result implies that they may be suitable for probing excitable cells in an intracellular mode. Meanwhile, CNT array properties, i.e.

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