There have been various investigations into the relationship betw

There have been various investigations into the relationship between obesity and renal impairment [17, 18]. Kambham et al. [19] defined a new entity, ORG, in which GH with FGS lesions or only GH developed in obese this website patients with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more, and proposed ORG as a renal disease that has been increasing in prevalence in recent years. These previous studies examined the renal histological features of obese patients with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more.

In contrast, the present Selleckchem Vactosertib study examined the characteristics of proteinuric patients without known primary or secondary glomerular diseases, especially focusing on the glomerular volume in the kidney biopsy specimens. We found that higher BMI levels, even if they were <30 kg/m2, had a significant correlation with the enlargement of the GV. Therefore, the present study was unique in terms of the methodology, which was based on the glomerular volume, not the BMI. We recently reported that a low GD associated with GH may be a characteristic histological finding of patients with ORG [12]. In that study, the analysis of autopsy cases without CKD, which were characterized by having an eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and no persistent urinary abnormalities, showed that the GD in overweight or obese persons was similar to that in non-obese individuals, although the GV was PLX 4720 larger in the overweight

and obese groups as compared to the non-obese group, among the autopsy cases. In contrast to those results, we found in the present study that the GD levels in our proteinuric patients were significantly lower in the obese group as compared to the non-obese group. In addition, the GD had a significant inverse correlation with the GV in Liothyronine Sodium our 34 patients (Table 3), indicating the functional adaptation of remaining glomeruli in patients with a small number of functioning nephrons. Based on these findings,

it is plausible to speculate that, in the patients with a low GD and large GV, obesity-related hemodynamic changes such as an increase of plasma flow or blood pressure within the glomerulus can alter glomerular permselectivity. Thus, a low GD may play a crucial role in the development of proteinuria in association with GH in overweight or obese persons. Concerning the pathological findings of our 34 proteinuric patients, the population of patients with increased mesangial matrix was comparable between those with and without GH (Table 2), indicating that GH was caused by the enlargement of glomerular capillaries. Sasatomi et al. [20] previously demonstrated, using glomerular morphometry, that the GH observed in obese patients presenting with urine abnormalities was due to the enlargement of glomerular capillaries. This finding was consistent with our results showing that there was no significant mesangial matrix increase in the hypertrophied glomeruli.

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