Therefore, nano-wires and nano-bridges can be formed by spinning

Therefore, nano-wires and nano-bridges can be formed by spinning polymer aggregates (Figure  5e,f,g,h).

As mentioned above, both macroscopic force interference and internal microscopic force interference will significantly affect the crystallization of polymer chains under different conditions. The MNBS texture and surface behaviors of these coatings are summed in Table  2. In comparison to disordered nano-grass structure of P1 coating, PTFE nano-fibers (5 to 10 μm in length/100 nm in width) with good directional consistency covered the microscale papillae (continuous zone) and the interface (discontinuous zone) between them on P2 coating surface, due to external macroscopic force interference by H2 gas flow (Figure  BTK inhibitor libraries 3b). Since large amount of air was captured by the nano-scale pores and the adhesion of water droplets on the orderly thin and long nano-fibers was significantly weakened [29, 30], the P2 coating surface shows superior superhydrophobicity (a WCA of 170° and a WSA of 0° to 1°). On the other hand, as the internal microscopic force interference (cooling rate) gradually increased, smaller and smaller PTFE nano-spheres and papules (80 to 200

nm, 60 to 150 nm, and 20 to 100 nm in diameter) were buy DMXAA PJ34 HCl distributed uniformly and consistently on the smooth continuous surface (continuous zone) of Q1 coating (quenched in the air at 20°C), Q2 coating (quenched in the mixture of ethanol and dry ice at -60°C), and Q3 coating (quenched in pure dry ice at -78.5°C), respectively

(Figures  4b,e and 5c). In addition, much shorter and wider nano-scale segments were distributed on the rough discontinuous surface (discontinuous zone) of Q1 and Q2 coating compared with P1 coating. Moreover, PTFE macromolecular chains were rapidly ‘spinned/stretched’ to new nano-scale ‘bridges’ (1 to 8 μm in length/10 to 80 nm in width) by a great microscopic tensile force at discontinuous interface (discontinuous zone) of Q3 coating (Figure  5e,f,g,h). As much smaller nano-papules/spheres with poor directional consistency stacked densely on the continuous zone of Q1, Q2, and Q3 coating, the contact area between the water droplet and the coating surfaces increased at some extent, and the adhesion of water droplets on Q1, Q2, and Q3 coating was greater than that of P2 coating [29, 30]. As a result, the WCA of Q1, Q2, and Q3 coating was smaller than P2 coating by more than 10°, and water droplets can be placed upside down on these coatings.

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