Therefore, we fit VGRF from footstrike to peak VGRF with two models. The first was a simple model with constant stiffness kc and the second a more complex model with non-constant stiffness that varied as a function of time. 13 Constant

stiffness, kc, was defined as peak VGRF divided by center-of-mass excursion. 12 The complex model fit VGRF in the least squares sense by estimating k(t) with a 4-parameter logistic ogive function, 21 k(t)=kl−kh1+t/tTm+kl,where kh was a high stiffness during initial loading (IL) that transitioned at time, tT, to a low stiffness value, kl. The fourth parameter, m, analogous to slope, Histone Methyltransferase inhibitor controlled the smoothness of the transition between kh and kl ( Fig. 1B). Computations for the model fits were performed using custom code written in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA). To determine which model, and

hence which vertical stiffness described a given step, a comparison of the R2 values was used. If the percent difference between R2 values for the simple and complex models was less than 3.0%, the simple model was considered. This indicated the absence of an impact transient. Otherwise the more complex, dual stiffness model was deemed necessary ( Fig. 1C). In this case, Panobinostat purchase the step was classified as having an impact transient. We focused our analysis on the IL and defined the vertical stiffness during IL (VILS). IL is defined as the time from contact to the impact transient, when it exists (Fig. 1A). This phase is of interest since it is used for computing loading rates, which are linked to a higher risk of certain running-related injuries. For the complex model, the stiffness during IL is equivalent to kh. For the simple model, stiffness is constant throughout stance,

therefore VILS is equivalent to kc. The loading PD184352 (CI-1040) rates were computed differently depending on the model used. When the complex, dual stiffness model was used, the point of interest (POI) from which to compute the loading rates was chosen as the VIP, when one existed. If there was no VIP, but the complex model was used, the transition time tT was used as the POI. For the simple model, the POI was taken as 13% of stance since this has been reported to be the average location of the VIP when one is present 22 ( Fig. 1C). The VALR was computed as the average slope from 20% to 80% of the VGRF at the POI 23 ( Fig. 1A). The instantaneous loading rate (VILR) was maximum slope computed between each frame of the VGRF from contact until the POI. Peak GRF in the medial and lateral directions were determined from the entire stance phase and reported in newtons (N). Impulses were computed as the area enclosed by the zero line and the ground reaction curve for each direction of interest in Ns. Lateral was defined as positive, with medial being negative.