These results lead us to suggest that this pathogen has considera

These results lead us to suggest that this pathogen has considerable evolutionary potential, which will enable it to adapt to and overcome management

strategies Selleck Proteasome inhibitor over time.”
“The advent of statins has revolutionised the treatment of patients with raised plasma cholesterol and increased cardiovascular risk. However, the beneficial effects of this class of drugs are far greater than would be expected from lowering of cholesterol alone, and they appear to offer cardiovascular protection at multiple levels, primarily as a result of their pleiotropic activity. Indeed, their favourable effects on the heart seem to be mediated in part through reduced prenylation and subsequent inhibition of small GTPases, particularly those of the Rho family. Such statin-mediated effects are manifested by reduced onset of heart failure and improvements in cardiac dysfunction and remodelling in heart failure patients. Experimental studies have

shown that statins mediate their effects on the two major resident cell types of the heart-cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts-and thus facilitate improvement of adverse remodelling of ischaemic or non-ischaemic aetiology. This review examines evidence for the cellular effects of statins in the heart, and discusses the underlying molecular mechanisms at the level of the cardiomyocyte (hypertrophy, cell death and contractile function) and the cardiac fibroblast (differentiation, proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix synthesis). The prospects for future therapies and ongoing clinical trials are also summarised.”
“The BIIB057 mouse benefits of valsartan find more (Val)/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination as initial treatment for hypertension were evaluated in a post

hoc analysis of an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The highest dose of Val/HCTZ combination (320/25 mg), component monotherapies (Val 320 mg, HCTZ 25 mg) and placebo were selected for this analysis (N=675, 52.1% men, 68.6% Caucasians, mean age 52.9 years, baseline blood pressure (BP) 150.6/99.1 mm Hg). As soon as 2 weeks after initiation of active therapy, greater BP control rates were observed with Val/HCTZ (320/25 mg) compared with Val (320 mg), HCTZ (25 mg) and placebo. Similar results were observed in subgroups of patients with stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension, as well as in diabetic patients. As baseline BP increased, the probability of achieving mean sitting systolic BP (<140 and <130 mm Hg) and mean sitting diastolic BP control (<90 and <80 mm Hg), determined using a logistic regression model, decreased with all treatments. However, at all levels of baseline BP, the probability of achieving BP control was greater with Val/HCTZ combination. The Val/HCTZ combination was well tolerated with overall incidence of adverse events similar to that observed with monotherapy and placebo.

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