This combination was modified by 0.05-μg kg-1 min-1 steps according to analgesic needs and hemodynamic parameters. In the BAL group, patients received inhalation anesthesia
with sevoflurane/O2/air (Sevorane™, Abbott, Latina, Italy) throughout the entire surgery. Before induction of anesthesia, VEGFR inhibitor 1–2 μg/kg fentanyl (Fentanest™, Pftzer, Latina, Italy) was administered. Anesthesia was induced by 0.1-0.2 mg/kg midazolam (Hameln pharmaceuticals Gmbh, Hameln, Germany), and the inhalation anesthesia was comprised of a mixture of sevoflurane/O2/air. For maintenance, the end-tidal sevoflurane concentration was kept at 1.4-2.8 vol %. In both groups, 0.1-0.5 mg/kg cisatracurium besylate (Nimbex™, Glaxo Smith Kline) was given to facilitate orotracheal intubation, followed by the continuous application of 0.06-0.12 mg kg-1
h-1 cisatracurium via infusion pumps. The lungs were mechanically ventilated in a Quisinostat concentration volume-control mode with settings aimed at achieving normocapnia, reaching a tidal volume up to 8–10 ml/kg and a respiratory frequency of 10–12 breaths/min. Mechanical ventilation was initiated with a mixture of 50% O2 and 50% air, and the inspired Selleck Sotrastaurin Oxygen concentration was 40% during surgery. All patients were kept supine during the operation. No patient received inotropes, vasopressors or methoclopramide during or after surgery. Monitoring included evaluation of cardiac hemodynamic parameters (electrocardiogram, heart rate, invasive blood pressure, systolic, diastolic, mean blood pressure [MAP], central venous pressure, stroke volume variation, cardiac index); tissue perfusion markers (ScvO2, Fenbendazole O2 delivery index, arterial lactates,
base excess, diuresis), respiratory parameters (pulse oximetry, end-tidal CO2, airway pressure, end-tidal sevoflurane), esophageal temperature, and blood glucose. The type of fluids (colloid and crystalloid) and the total volume were administered according to the goals optimized for a Cardiac Index >2.5 L/min/m2, MAP >90-105 mmHg, and Oxygen Delivery Index >600 ml/min/m2. Furthermore, the ScvO2 value was maintained at ≥70%. Patients received 1 packed red cell unit for each 1 g/dl of hemoglobin when its value was <8 g/dl. After surgery, the residual neuromuscular blockade was reversed with a mixture of atropine and neostigmine (Intrastigmina™, Lusofarmaco, Milano, Italy) only if deemed clinically necessary. Anesthetic agents were switched off, and 100% O2 was given with 8 l/min fresh gas flow for 1 min. Supplemental oxygen was not given postoperatively. Hypothermic prevention during anesthesia was achieved by warm venous infusion (warmed serum), and a thermal blanket was applied to cover the upper part of the body. In addition, a warming forced-air blanket was used post-surgery (Equator Covective Warming™, Smith Medical Italia, Milano, Italy). After tracheal extubation, all patients received an intravenous bolus of 2 mg morphine (Recordati).