This discrepancy raised concerns as to a possible difference betw

This discrepancy raised concerns as to a possible difference between human and mouse Th17 cells. Subsequent studies addressing the role of TGF-β in human Th17-cell differentiation confirmed an inhibitory effect of TGF-β at high doses, but emphasized the requirement of low doses of this cytokine for Th17-cell this website differentiation [32-34]. The strict dose dependency of the TGF-β requirement and the finding of constitutive

TGF-β signaling in freshly isolated human T cells [35] raise the question of whether TGF-β is a limiting factor for Th17-cell differentiation in vivo or whether it may be required in vitro depending on the culture conditions. Interestingly, more recent studies in the mouse demonstrated that Th17-cell differentiation LDK378 nmr could occur also in the absence of TGF-β signaling, and only Th17 cells generated in the absence of TGF-β were found to be pathogenic in an EAE model [36]. These findings suggest that there may be different pathways for the generation of Th17 cells (and possibly Th1 and Th2 cells) and that our definition of a T-cell lineage based on a single cytokine and transcription factor may not be sufficient

to explain the complex heterogeneity of effector T cells. Given the heterogeneity of IL-17-producing T cells and the variety of cytokines involved in their differentiation, it would be important to develop new approaches based on the physiological function of these cells in the immune response. Since Th17 cells are key players in host defense, attempts were made to prime directly in vitro human naïve T cells against whole microbes, in order to induce Protein kinase N1 Th17-cell differentiation in a more physiological system and identify the signals involved in driving this process. A method was developed that takes advantage of the complexity

of the microbes that provide, at the same time, a large number of antigens that can be recognized by specific naïve T cells and a variety of stimuli for innate receptors that lead to the upregulation of costimulatory molecules and the production of polarizing cytokines by antigen presenting cells [37]. Monocytes exposed to C. albicans or S. aureus efficiently primed human naïve CD4+ naïve T cells in vitro, which subsequently proliferated and differentiated into Th17 cells producing high levels of IL-17, IL-22, and expressing CCR6 and RORγt [37]. However, the cells primed by C. albicans had a hybrid Th17/Th1 phenotype, that is, they produced IL-17 and IFN-γ and expressed RORγt and T-bet, while cells primed by S. aureus produced IL-17, no IFN-γ, but did produce IL-10 but only in a narrow time window by strongly activated proliferating Th17 cells [37]. Strikingly, in vivo primed C. albicans or S. aureus specific memory Th17 cells isolated from immune donors had the same cytokine profile as the in vitro C. albicans or S. aureus primed Th17 cells, producing IL-17 plus either IFN-γ or IL-10, respectively.

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